663. Coracias garrulus

663. ROLLER.
CORACIAS GARRULUS.
Coracias garrulus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 159 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p 168, Taf. 60 ; Hewitson i. p. 253, pl. lxiv. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. ii. pl. 60 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 11 ; Newton, ii. p. 428 ; Dresser, v. p. 141, pl. 293 ; id. Monogr. Corac. p. 19, pl. vii. ; Sharpe, Cat. B Br. Mus. xvii. p. 15 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 106 ; Saun¬ders, p. 281 ; Lilford, ii. p. 17, pl. 8.
Rollier vulgaire, French ; Rollieiro, Portug. ; Carlanco, Carranco, Span. ; Ghiandaja marina, Ital. ; Blauracke, Mandelkrahe, Germ. ; Racke, Dutch ; Ellekrage, Dan. ; Blaakraake, Norw. ; Blakraka, Swed. ; Sininarhi, Finn. ; Civovoronka, Russ. ; Chal-koroni, Greek ; Alla-Karga, Turk. ; Sharrakak, Moor. ; Shugurug, Arab. ; Subz-Kullag, Pers. ; Nila-Kras, Kashm. ; Sheen-Tootec, Pushtoo.
Male ad. (Spain). Head, hind-neck, and under parts pale blue tinged with green, darker on the head and throat, paler on the abdomen ; fore¬head and chin hoary white ; back, scapulars, and inner secondaries cinnamon brown ; least wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail coverts rich ultramarine ; quills blackish, but light blue at the base ; outer primaries externally glossed with deep blue ; middle tail-feathers dull greenish blue, the rest dull blue, lighter towards the end ; the outermost blackish at the tip ; throat striped with silvery blue ; bill black ; legs yellowish brown ; iris brownish grey. Culmen 1.3, wing 7.7, tail 5.0, tarsus 0.95 inch. Sexes alike, but the young are duller and browner.
Hab. Europe generally to 60° N. Lat. ; accidental in England and Scotland ; Africa in winter, south to the Cape Colony ; Asia east to Western Siberia and Central Asia ; India in Sind and the Punjab, and east to Khandesh, Ahmedabad, the Satpura Hills, Mussooree, and Garhwal.
Frequents woods and bush-covered plains, and is restless and uneasy. Its flight is quick and easy, and it has a habit of turning over or rolling on the wing like some Pigeons. Its note is a deep, harsh, racker-racker-racker, and a plaintive high krah. Its food consists of various birds of insects, worms, and small frogs, and it is also said to eat figs. It breeds in hollow trees, holes in walls, or even in holes in river banks, construct¬ing a nest of roots and straws lined with hair or feathers, and in April, May, or June, according to latitude it deposits 4 to 5 pure white glossy, roundish eggs which average about 1.42 by 1.12.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 1. 1902.
Title in Book: 
663. Coracias garrulus
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
663
Year: 
1902
Page No: 
462
Common name: 
Roller
M_ID: 
8961
M_CN: 
European Roller
M_SN: 
Coracias garrulus
Volume: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 
id: 
10726

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