1293. Columba livia.
The Blue Rock-Pigeon.
Columba livia, Bonnaterre, Encycl. Meth. i, p. 227 (1790); Blyth, Cat. p. 233 pt.; Hume, S. F. i,- p. 218 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 290; Hume, Cat. no. 788 bis ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 92 ; Scully, ibid. p. 684; Swinhoe, Itis, 1882, p. 117 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 457 ; id. Birds Bom. p. 289 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 173 ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 115 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 252. Columba neglecta, Hume, Lah. to Yark. p. 272 (1873).
Coloration. This, the Blue Rock-Pigeon or Bock-Dove of Europe, differs from the Indian C. intermedia only in having the lower back (not, as sometimes stated, the rump) white. Usually, too, the general tint is paler.
Distribution. The Western Palaearctic region, with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Sind, the Punjab, Kashmir, and occasionally other parts of Northern India. The birds found in North-western India are usually intermediate between the two races, and have a comparatively narrow white or whitish bund on the lower back, not a broad band like European birds.