866. Harelda glacialis

866. LONG-TAILED DUCK.
HARELDA GLACIALIS.
Harelda glacialis (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 203 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 210, Taf. 319 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 431, pl. cxviii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pl. 382 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 33 ; Dresser, vi. p. 617, pls. 443, 444 ; (Audub.), B. Am. vi. p. 379, pl. 410 ; Salvadori, Cat. 15. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 389 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 1179 ; Saunders, p. 455 ; Lilford, vii. p. 119, pl. 50 ; A. hyemalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 202 (1766) ; (Ridgway) ; p. 106.
Harelde glaciale, French ; Moretta Codona, Ital. ; Eisente, German ; Ijseend, Dutch ; Havlit, Dan. ; Isand, Norweg. ; Alfogel, Swed. ; Aglek, Greenl. ; Havelli, Icel. ; Alli, Finn. ; Vostroh-vostka, Polyarnoi-nyrok, Russ.
Male ad. (New Brunswick). Forehead and sides of head ashy grey, browner round the eye ; a long brown patch on the sides of the neck, becoming chestnut-red below ; rest of head, neck, upper breast, back, and scapulars white ; sides of and lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and elongated middle tail-feathers black ; rest of tail white ; wing-coverts, primaries, and lower breast brownish black, secondaries washed with chestnut ; abdomen white ; bill blackish plumbeous, with a band of pinkish orange ; legs plumbeous ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 1.2, wing 9.0, tail 8.0, the middle feathers 5.0 longer than the rest, tarsus 1.4 inch. The female has the crown and nape blackish brown, becoming greyish on the hind-neck ; upper parts blackish, the scapulars ashy brown with darker centres ; middle tail feathers not elongated ; sides of head dull white ; chin and a patch down the sides of the neck brown ; throat washed with dull brown ; a broad blackish brown band across the upper breast ; under parts otherwise white. In the summer the male has the forepart of the head sooty grey, the rest of the head, neck, and breast black ; upper parts black margined with rusty-red : under parts white.
Hab. The high northern portions of Europe, Asia, and America, visiting the coasts of continental Europe, and the British Islands in winter, and has been obtained in Italy Asia, in winter, south to Japan, and in North America to South Carolina.
In the winter season it frequents the sea-coasts and is very hardy, only seeking sheltered places during very severe weather. It dives extremely well, and seeks its food chiefly under water, feeding on small shell-fish. It is a very noisy bird, its peculiar gabbling cry being uttered incessantly. It breeds in the high north, chiefly within the Arctic Circle, its nest being placed on the ground, usually under a bush near the margin of a lake and the eggs 6 to 8 in number are usually deposited late in June or early in July, and are greyish buff with a faint greenish tinge, and measure about 2.17 by 1.51.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 2. 1903.
Title in Book: 
866. Harelda glacialis
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
866
Year: 
1903
Page No: 
625
Common name: 
Long Tailed Duck
M_ID: 
549
M_CN: 
Long-tailed Duck
M_SN: 
Clangula hyemalis
Volume: 
Vol. 2
Term name: 
id: 
10511

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