708. Cinclus kashmiriensis.
The White-breasted Asiatic Dipper.
Cinclus cashmeriensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 494; Salvin, Ibis, 1867, p. 117; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 48; Hume, Cat. no. 348 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 312; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 438. Hydrobata cashmeriensis (Gould), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 507; Blyth, Ibis, 1860, p. 374; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 33; Hume & Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 189.
The White-breasted Cashmere Dipper, Jerd.
Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, sides of the head and neck, and the whole mantle chocolate-brown ; remainder of the upper plumage slate-colour, each feather distinctly margined with black ; the mantle and back blending gradually together, the brown of the former suffusing the upper part of the latter ; wings dark brown, the outer webs edged with slate-colour, and the secondaries and tertiaries tipped with white ; wing-coverts dark brown, broadly edged with slaty ; tail slaty, the shafts dark; cheeks, chin, throat, and breast pure white; remainder of the lower plumage chocolate-brown, gradually turning to dark brown or blackish towards the tail.
The young have the whole upper plumage slate-colour with black margins; the wing-coverts tipped white ; the quills more broadly tipped with white than in the adult; the whole lower plumage white with numerous irregular cross-lines of brown. After the autumn moult the young resemble the adult, but the abdomen is dark brown without' any tinge of chocolate immediately next the while of the breast, as is the case in the adult, and each feather of the vent, abdomen, and under tail-coverts narrowly margined with white; tips to quills broader than in the fully adult. Early in the first spring the white margins and tips are cast and the full plumage donned.
Legs and feet dark brown ; bill black (G. Henderson).
Length about 8; tail 2.1; wing 3.8; tarsus 1.15 ; bill from gape .95.
This species extends westward to Asia Minor, and is closely allied to the three races of Dipper which are found in Europe. It may be distinguished from them by the absence of rufous on the abdomen immediately next the white breast, and further by the brown of the mantle extending some distance down the back and blending with the colour of the latter. To the north, the present form tends to run into G. leucogaster, in typical examples of which the whole lower parts are white. In some specimens there is a tendency towards G. sordidus, the white of the throat and breast being infuscated and occasionally these parts are quite brown.
Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit to Sikhim from 9000 to 14,000 feet or higher, according to season. This Dipper extends on the west to Asia Minor and on the east to China, and it has a very extended range through Central Asia.