811. Black Stork.
Ciconia nigra (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 235 (1766) ; Naum. ix. p. 279, Taf. 229 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 319, pl. lxxxiv. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 284 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 31 ; Dresser, vi. p. 309, pl. 406 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 450 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 303 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 975 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 369 ; Saunders, p. 389 ; Lilford, vii. p. 45, pl. 16.
Cigogne noir, French ; Cegonha preta, Portug. ; Ciguena negra, Span. ; Cigogna nera, Ital ; Schwarzer Storch, German ; Sort Stork, Dan. ; Svart Stork, Swed. ; Tschernoi Aist, Russ. ; Balazan, Arab. ; Surmai, Hindu.
Male ad. (Brunswick). Head, neck, back, wings, and tail black with metallic gloss ; lower breast and under parts white ; beak, naked skin round the eye and legs orange red ; iris reddish brown. Culmen 7.4, wing 21.1, tail 9.5, tarsus 7.5 inch. Female similar. The young have the upper parts browner and duller, most of the feathers tipped with dull white.
Hab. Temperate and southern Europe, becoming rare in the north up to southern Sweden ; of rare occurrence in Great Britain ; Africa, in winter as far south as the Cape Colony ; Asia north to the Lena, east to Mongolia and China.
In habits it is less sociable than C. alba and does not affect the neighbourhood of man, but frequents marshes in or near forests, generally far from human habitations. It is also far more shy and is not seen in flocks, even during passage, but singly or in pairs. It feeds on frogs, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and to some extent on insects. It breeds in forests, making a smaller nest than that of C. alba, of sticks lined with grass and moss, or it occasionally utilizes the deserted nest of some other large bird, and it sometimes nests in a cave or on a cliff. The eggs, 3 to 5 in number, are usually deposited late in May or early in June, and are white, resembling those of C. alba except that when held up to the light the inside of the blown egg is yellowish green ; in size they measure about 2.54 by 1.90.
811. Ciconia nigra
811. Black Stork.