371. Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii

(371) Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii Jard. & Selby.
THE INDIAN ORANGE-BELLIED CHLOROPSIS.
Chloropsis hardivickii hardwickii, Fauna B. I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. i, p. 349.
Our Indian form of hardwickii is found from the Simla States and Garhwal to Eastern Assam. South it ranges through Manipur and Burma to Tenasserim and East to the Shan States, Northern and Western Siam. The bird from the Malay States has been separated by Robertson and Kloss under the name of C. hardwickii malayensis.
It breeds in the Assam Hills up to 6,000 feet but, more generally, between 2,000 and 4,000 feet ; in Sikkim Stevens gives its highest elevation as 5,500 feet, but thinks it probably works up to 6,000. In Naini Tal Whymper took nests round about 4,000 feet.
Like the last, this also is a bird of forests and densely wooded country, though it may feed on solitary trees right out in the open when these are in flower.
The nest is much like that of the Gold-fronted Chlorppsis, a cradle made of roots and fibres, tiny elastic twigs and a few oddments, with a lining of fine roots. The only difference I have been able to notice is that the Orange-bellied Chloropsis seldom, if ever, makes use of moss with which to decorate its nest. It also places it still higher up in big trees and, though now and then one may be taken from heights 20 or 25 feet from the ground, most are over 30 feet up and many as much as 40.
Whymper describes three nests taken by him as follows :— “The nests were all placed towards the extreme tops of fairly large trees, thirty to forty feet high, and were well concealed among the leaves ; they are slung between two twigs (not in a fork) and are very like Bulbuls’ nests, made of fine roots and fibres with a partial lining of black rootlets, measuring 2 inches in diameter and 1.3/4 deep.”
They differ from Bulbuls’ nests in being generally much more shallow. Across the top they may measure anything between 3.1/2 and 4.3/4 inches but in depth seldom as much as 2 inches. Indeed, the cavity itself is so shallow that it seems strange that the eggs are not more often blown out, especially when one knows in what swaying, easily blown about branches they are built in.
In North Cachar I took no nests until the last week in May, but in the adjoining Khasia Hills I took one with three eggs on the 10th of that month. Many birds, however, breed late and I have taken nests with fresh eggs as late as the 3rd August.
Whymper took two of his nests in July, one on the 4th and one on the 8th.
The eggs are just like those of the Gold-fronted Chloropsis, perhaps on an average darker and better blotched, but they range over the same degree of variation. The texture is the same as in aurifrons and differs from that of Notodela and Niltava eggs in having the surface much less hard and glossy, though the texture itself is quite as fine. They are also decidedly more fragile than the eggs of Notodela (Muscisylvia).
Twenty eggs average 22.8 x 15.9 mm. : maxima 24.6 x 16.7 and 23.1 x 17.5 mm. ; minima 21.8 x 16.3 and 22.1 x 15.1 mm.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 1. 1932.
Title in Book: 
371. Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii
Spp Author: 
Jard.&
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
371
Year: 
1932
Page No: 
325
Common name: 
Orange Bellied Chloropsis
M_ID: 
28644
M_SN: 
Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii
Volume: 
Vol. 1
id: 
13560

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith