1291. Chalcophaps indica.
The Bronze-winged Dove.
Columba indica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 284 (1766). Chalcophaps indica, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 859 ; id. Cat. p. 237 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 484; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151; Beavan, ibid. p. 332; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 112; Ball, S. F. i, p. 80; Walden. Ibis, 1873, p. 315; Hume, N. & E. p. 509; id. S. F. ii, p. 269; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burnt, p. 147 ; Hume & Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 404 ; Inglis. S. F. v, p. 40; Fairbank, ibid. p. 409 ; Butler, ibid. p. 503; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 424 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 667; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 225; Cripps, ibid. p. 298 ; Hume, Cat. no. 798 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 714; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 75; Bingham, ibid. p. 195; Butler, ibid. p. 421 ; Reid, ibid. p. 500; Davison, S. F. x, p. 408; Taylor, ibid. p. 464 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 297 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 293 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 300 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 363 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 514. Chalcophaps augusta, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 92 (1854); Blyth, Ibis, 1868, p. 133; Ball, S. F. i, p. 81.
Ram ghugu, Raj-ghugu, Beng.; Andi-bella-guwa, Tel.; Pathuki praa, Tam., Ceylon; Nila Kobeyu, Cing.; Ka-er, Lepcha; Mati-Kupohu, Assamese; Oyo-Sane, Burmese.
Coloration. Male. Forehead and supercilia white, passing into the dark bluish grey of the crown and nape; sides of head and neck all round deep vinous red; a few grey feathers or sometimes a narrow grey band down the back of the neck; upper back, wing-coverts, scapulars, tertiaries, and outer webs of secondaries metallic emerald-green changing to coppery bronze; small wing-coverts near edge of wing vinous grey, separated by a narrow white bar from the green ; greater primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries dark brown, inner borders of quills near base and the wing-lining chestnut; lower back coppery bronze with two pale grey cross-bands, the hinder bordering the rump, which is dark grey with blackish edges to the feathers; tail blackish brown, outer two or three pairs of feathers grey, with a broad subterminal black band : lower parts deep vinous, paler on throat and abdomen, lower tail-coverts dark grey.
Female. Forehead and supercilia pale grey ; crown, nape, hind neck, and sides of neck brown tinged with vinous, smaller wing-coverts near edge of wing brown, the white bar absent or scarcely perceptible; upper tail-coverts rufous-brown with dark edges, middle four rectrices blackish brown, next two pairs rufous near the base, outer two pairs grey near the base and at tips as in the male; lower surface brown with a vinous tinge; back and wings as in male. Young birds are at first dull brown above, with very little green, and are barred rufous and chirk brown beneath.
Bill red : iris dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous : legs dusky red, claws pale horn-colour (Oates).
Length about 10.5; tail 3.75 ; wing 5.75; tarsus 1; bill from gape .9.
Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas as far west as Mussooree, and probably Kashmir (Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 187) from the base to about 6000 feet elevation, also Lower and Eastern Bengal, the forest tracts between the Ganges and the Mahanadi (and probably as far south as the Godavari), east of lat. 80° E., and the forests near the Malabar coast from Cape Comorin to the neighbourhood of Bombay, but, so far as I can ascertain, nowhere else in India; certainly not, as Jerdon states, throughout India. This dove is found in Ceylon, also in the Andamans and Nicobars, and is generally distributed from Assam, throughout the Burmese countries, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to New Guinea, and through South China to the Philippines.
Habits, &c. This beautiful Dove is found only in forests and damp thickly-wooded parts of the country, and is generally solitary. It is far from shy and may be seen feeding on forest paths, along which or along stream-beds it dashes with great swiftness when disturbed, but it usually Hies only a short distance and seldom or never rises far from the ground. It feeds on berries and seeds picked up from the ground, and its call is low, plaintive, and prolonged. It breeds from January or February to July, and has probably two broods; the nest, more saucer-shaped than that of other doves, is a comparatively neat structure of roots, grass, or twigs without lining. The eggs are creamy white to very pale buff, two iu number, and measure about 1.1 by .85.