The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the bronchial semi-rings; the edges of both mandibles perfectly smooth, or with a simple notch in the upper one; hinder aspect of tarsus bilaminated, the lamina) entire and smooth; wing with ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of the forehead, the space between the nostril and the edge of the mandible less than the space between the nostril and culmen; plumage of the nestling resembling that of the adult female, but paler ; nostrils bare; rictal bristles absent.

The Certhiidae, comprise the Creepers and the Wrens, two groups which are closely allied to each other. With the exception of Tichodroma all the Certhiidae found in India are resident species and have but one moult a year.

The Certhiidae have the feathers of the forehead short and closely set together, and they have no hairs over the nostrils nor any vestige of rictal bristles. The wing varies in shape, being sometimes, as in Salpornis, extremely pointed and sometimes very blunt and rounded, as in the true Wrens. The toes and claws in all are much Lengthened. The number of tail-feathers varies from twelve to six in this family.

The Certhiidae are found over a considerable portion of the world, and they are probably a very ancient group.

Key to the Genera.

a. Tail of 12 feathers.
a1. Tail composed of stiff, pointed feathers…………….. CERTHIA, p. 328.
b1. Tail composed of soft, rounded feathers.
a2. First primary not more than a quarter the Length of the second…………….. SALPORNIS, p. 332.
b2. First primary equal to, or longer than, half the second.
a3. Wing more than four times the Length of the tarsus…………….. TICHODROMA, p. 334.
b3. Wing less than three times the Length of the tarsus.
a4. Tail and wing of much the same Length…………….. SPHENOCICHLA, p. 335.
b4. Tail very much shorter than the wing.
a5. Tail less graduated, the outer feather being three-quarters the Length of the tail…………….. ANORTHURA, p. 337.
b5. Tail more graduated, the outer feather being only half the Length of the tail…………….. ELACHURA, p. 339.
b. Tail of 10 feathers…………….. UROCICHLA, p. 340.
c. Tail of 6 feathers …………….. PNOEPYGA, p. 342.

The Fauna Of British India including Ceylon and Burma
OATES EW. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Vol.1 1889.
Title in Book: 
Book Author: 
Eugene William Oates, Edited by William Thomas Blanford
Page No: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 

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