The genus Certhia contains six Indian species, which are chiefly residents on the Himalayas, or migratory to a slight extent from higher to lower altitudes or vice versa.

Certhia appears to have only an autumn moult, but Biddulph (Ibis, 1881), with regard to C. himalayana, speaks of a winter and a summer plumage. A large series of skins of this species, however, does not support his assertion, and no European writer has noticed the fact in regard to C. familiaris. The young are coloured like the adult, but they often have on the lower plumage some obsolete cross-bars, especially on the sides of the breast.

The Tree-Creepers, as their name denotes, are found climbing the trunks and branches of trees. They feed entirely on insects.

They lay spotted eggs, which are deposited in a nest made of twigs, grass, and moss in a hole in a tree or behind a piece of detached bark.

In Certhia the bill is sometimes as long as the head, more fre¬quently rather shorter, slender, and curved downwards. The nostrils are long narrow slits. The wing is rounded, the first primary being about half the Length of the second, which, with the third, falls short of the tip of the wing. The tail is longer than the wing, and composed of twelve very stiff and pointed feathers, and greatly graduated. The tarsus is scutellated, and the toes and claws are extremely long.

Key to the Species.

a. Tail distinctly cross-barred throughout……………….C. himalayana, p. 329.
b. Tail plain or nearly so.
a1. Lower plumage, except the under tail- coverts, entirely white……………….C. hodgsoni, p. 329.
b1. Chin, throat, and centre of breast and abdomen white; remainder of lower
plumage fulvous-brown……………….C. nepalensis, p. 330.
c1. Whole lower plumage earthy brown……………….C. discolor, p. 331.
d1. Chin, throat, and breast bull; remainder of lower plumage earthy brown……………….C. manipurensis, p. 331.
e1. Chin and throat whitish; centre of breast and abdomen fulvous; remainder of lower
plumage deep ferruginous……………….C. stoliczkae, p. 332.

The Fauna Of British India including Ceylon and Burma
OATES EW. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Vol.1 1889.
Title in Book: 
Book Author: 
Eugene William Oates, Edited by William Thomas Blanford
Page No: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 

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