(448) Certhia familiaris nipalensis.
The Nepal Tree-Creeper.
Certhia nipalensis Blyth, J. A. S. B., xiv, 2, p. 581 (1845) (Nepal) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 830*
Vernacular names. Dao-mojo (Cachari); Inrui-m-jet (Naga).
Description. Upper plumage and wing-coverts very dark brown, streaked with bright rufous and with a few additional streaks of Blackish and fulvous-white; lower back and rump ferruginous; tail brown faintly tinged with reddish; a fulvous white supercilium from the nostrils to the nape ; lores and ear-coverts mixed brown and rufous; wings brown, the primaries with an oblique band of fulvous edged with black; chin and throat pure white; abdomen, flanks and under tail-coverts fulvous-white.
Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; upper mandible horny brown, lower mandible fleshy horny; legs and feet flesh-colour.
Measurements. Wing 67 to 71 mm.; tail 57 to 76 mm.; tarsus about 18 mm.; culmen 13 to 15 mm.
Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and hills North and South of the Brahmaputra above 6,000 feet.
Nidification. A nest taken by myself in N. Cachar was composed entirely of scraps of soft green moss, forming a pad fitting into a hollow between a projecting piece of bark and the trunk of a tree at about 25 feet from the ground. There were only three eggs which were taken as I had to leave the place, or doubtless more would have been laid. In colour they are a pure white with tiny spots of reddish, principally in a ring about the larger end. They were taken on the 11th April, 1890 (recorded in error 16th May, Journal B. N. H. S. and 'Ibis'), and measure 17.7 x 13.1 mm. They will possibly eventually prove to be abnormally large, pale eggs but I watched the parent birds for hours previously and am certain of their identity.
Habits. These are in no way different from those of the Himalayan Tree-Creeper. It is found principally between 7,000 and 10,000 feet North of the Brahmaputra and certainly ascends to 12,000 and 13,000 feet during the summer. South of the Brahmaputra it was not very rare either in North Cachar or the Khasia Hills at 6,000 feet, being found as low as 5,000 feet. It is essentially a bird of pine and fir forests but I found it also in mixed oak and rhododendron and, though I failed to find its nest, it certainly bred in the latter in the Khasia Hills. Its voice is a very Bat-like little squeak but I have never heard its song;