341. Certhia himalayana.
The Himalayan Tree-Creeper.
Certhia himalayana, Vig. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174; Blyth, Cat. p. 188; Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 717; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 380; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 25 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 19; Hume, N. & E. p. 160; Cock & Marsh. S. F. i, p. 351; Hume, S. F. v, p. 78; id. Cat. no. 243; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 50; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 327; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, p. 220.
Coloration. Upper plumage blackish striped with fulvous, the wing-coverts tipped with the same; rump and upper tail-coverts strongly tinged with ferruginous; tail brown, regularly cross-barred with black; wings dark brown, all the quills, except the first four, with a broad fulvous band, above and below which the feathers are blackish ; the quills also tipped fulvous, and with a subterminal band on the outer webs near the tip; a short eyebrow fulvous ; ear-coverts black; chin and upper throat pure white; remainder of lower plumage pale smoky brown.
Upper mandible black; lower mandible fleshy ; legs, feet, and claws fleshy ; iris dark brown (Davison).
Length about 6 ; tail 2.8; wing 2.7; tarsus .55; bill from gape .9.
C. taeniura, found in Samarkand and Central Asia, has a very much longer bill.
Distribution. Throughout the N.W. Himalayas from Almora to Hazara, and through the greater part of Kashmir to Gilgit. This bird is found at all elevations, according to season, from the plains up to 12,000 feet. In Gilgit it is found below 6000 feet in winter, and in summer it retreats to the forests above. It extends to Hunza and Chitral in the north, and Wardlaw Ramsay met with it further south in Afghanistan.
Habits, &c. Nests in holes in high trees some forty feet from the ground. The eggs are white, with numerous red spots, and measure .6 by .45. The nests have been found at Murree and in Kashmir, but in what months is not recorded.