4. Turdus swainsoni

Turdus swainsoni, Cabanis in Tschudi’s Faun. Peru. ii. p. 187, 188, (1845-46) ; Naumann, xiii. p. 273, Taf. 355, fig. 4 ; Dresser, ix. p. I. pl. 634, fig. 2 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. Br. Mus. v. p. 201.
Ad. (N. America). Above olivaceous tinged with green, the rump and tail uniform with the hack ; below white spotted with blackish brown, the sides of head, neck and the breast washed with buff ; eye-streak indistinct ; bill dark brown, yellowish at the base ; legs brown ; iris hazel. Culmen 0.52, wing 3.9, tail 2.9, tarsus 1.1 inch.
Hab. Eastern N. America, from the Yukon and Slave Lake, breeding as far south as at 44° N. lat., in winter ranging as far south as Peru ; has once occurred in Greenland, and is a rare visitant to Europe, but has not occurred in Great Britain. Six occurrences have been recorded in Europe, viz. one near Genoa in 1843, a second at Namur, Belgium, a third on Heligoland in 1869, a fourth in Holstein, a fifth near Rovereto, Tyrol, in 1878, and a sixth at Sarzana in Liguria.
In general habits it is rather more arboreal than its congeners, and seeks its food more amongst the branches of trees than on the ground, feeding chiefly on insects of various kinds. Its song is sweet and plaintive, and is said to be more regular than that of T. pallasi. Its nest is placed on a tree in dense woods, usually about four to six feet above the ground, though in the high north it has been found as low as two feet. It is compact and neatly finished, constructed of lichen, moss, chiefly Hypnum, leaves, bents, strips of bark, &c., and the eggs 4 or 5 in number, which are usually deposited late in April or early in May, are bluish-green, occasionally light blue, spotted with yellowish or reddish-brown, averaging in size about 0.88 by 0.66. In Western N. America a closely allied form occurs, which is separated by American authors under the name of T. ustulatus Nutt., and which ranges north to Sitka, and in winter south through Western Mexico to Guatemala.

A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 1. 1902.
Title in Book: 
4. Turdus swainsoni
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
Page No: 
Common name: 
Swainson’s Thrush
Catharus ustulatus swainsoni
Vol. 1

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