Cardinalis phoeniceus

Fringilla cardinalis, Licht. Verz. Donbl. Mas. Berl. p. 89 (1823).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Gould, MS.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Bonap. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 111.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Gray et Mitch. Gen. Birds, ii. p. 358 (1814).
Cardinalis granadensis, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 74.
Cardinalis phaeniceus, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. p. 501 (1850).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Licht! Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol, p. 44 (1854).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Eyton, Cat. Birds, p. 266 (1856).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Selater, Cat. of Amer. Birds, p. 100. 1862.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p 83.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Scl. et Salv. Exot. Ornith, p. 125, pl. 63 male et female (1868).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Scl. et Salv. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, pp. 167, 170.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Scl. et Salv. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 251.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 553.
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Gray, Hand-List Birds, ii. p. 102 (1870).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. Av. Neotr. p. 27 (1873).
Coccothraustes phoeniceus, Russ, Stubenvogel, p. 540 (1879).
Cardinalis phoeniceus, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xii. p. 1L6 (1888).
Figure. Scl. et Salv. Exot. Ornith, pl. 63.
English. Venezuelan Cardinal. Colombian Cardinal.
French. Le Cardinal de Venezuela.
German. Der purpurrothe Kardinal.
Habitat. Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad.
Habitat. Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad.
Male. Bright vermilion red, clearer on the head, crest, rump, and under parts ; mantle, scapulars, and lower back rosy brick-red ; wings and coverts pale brown, more or less edged with rosy brick-red ; tail brick-red, tinged with bright vermilion on the outer webs ; frontal band extremely narrow, not uniting on the culmen, and chin black ; axillaries, under surface of wings, and coverts vermilion, tinged with pink ; “ iris reddish-brown” (Goering) ; bill whitish horn at the base, brown on the culmen and tip : length 6.45, wing 3.2, tail 3.3, tars. 0.85, culm. 0.65.
Female. Above ashy-brown, tinged with rufous on the rump ; narrow frontal band whitish, intermixed with blackish bristles ; crest-feathers dull vermilion ; wing-coverts and secondaries like the back, faintly tinged with brick red ; primaries dull brown, outer webs brick-red ; tail dull brick-red, with dusky edges ; moustachial line and chin blackish ; throat and abdomen ashy-white ; breast, sides, and flanks dull rufous-brown ; axillaries, under wing-coverts, edges of inner webs rosy-red ; bill darker than in the male.
Young. Similar to the female, but rather more ashy on the mantle and scapulars.
Observ. The brilliant colour of the male is gradually assumed in patches, variously and unequally distributed over the body.
THE first notice of a species of Cardinal corresponding to the present bird, which I have been able to discover, is Fringilla cardinalis (n. Lox. card. Lin. Cayana), in a supplementary list of birds added by Dr. H. Lichtenstein to his ‘ Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums, Berlin,’ p. 89 (1823), which I presume refers to this Venezuelan Cardinal, although I am unable to find any reference to its having been brought from Cayenne ; but Lichtenstein’s examples were possibly con¬veyed from Venezuela, and accidentally mixed with a collection of Cayenne skins.
I transcribe the following remarks respecting this species from Messrs. Selater and Salvin’s ‘Exotic Ornithology,’ published in 1868. They say : “The Venezuelan Cardinal is a beautiful representative of the well-known northern species, the ‘Bed Bird’ or ‘Virginian Cardinal, of the United States. It is of nearly the same form, but is readily distinguished by its smaller size, longer crest, and the absence of the black band on the forehead.
“This bird was first described by the late Prince Bonaparte in a paper published in the ‘Zoological Society’s Proceedings’ for 1837, under the MS. name applied to it by Mr. John Gould in his collection. The habitat there given is somewhat vague, being described as 'the country southward of the Bay of Honduras.’ We are, however, enabled to state with certainty that its true patria is the littoral of Venezuela.”
In the ‘Revue Zoologique’ for 1847, M. Lafresnaye described and renamed the present species Cardinalis granadensis ; this being the only other synonym which this fortunate bird possesses.
In the ‘ Ibis ’ for 1864, Mr. E. C. Taylor says : “ The low sandy coast near the town of Barcelona in Venezuela, covered with dense bush and low trees, is the only locality where I met with this beautiful species ; there, however, it was tolerably plentiful. I do not believe it ever occurs in Trinidad.” But Dr. O. Finsch has, since Mr. Taylor wrote the above, received specimens which confirm its existence in that island.
Mr. A. Goering procured this bird at Carupano, and states that it is “found only on the coast, and not met with a few leagues in the interior. San Esteban is situated about six English miles inland from Puerto Cabello, in a valley, through which runs a small river. Most of the birds ob-tained here are different from those found in Eastern Venezuela, where my first collections were formed. It is singular that Cardinalis phoeniceus, so common near Carupano, is very rare here. I have never seen this bird on the hills, but only on the plains near the coast, which are covered with a simple vegetation of Mimosa, Cactus, &c.”
On the authority of Dr. O. Finsch this species was received in a collec¬tion of birds sent to Mr. Kohlmann from the island of Trinidad.
The specimen a in my own collection is one of the types described by Bonaparte in the P. Z. S. 1837 ; the other is now in the British Museum.
Specimens examined.
No. Sex. Mus. Locality. Length. Wing. Tail. Tars.
a Male E. B. Honduras ? (Bonaprte). 6.35 3.25 3.3 0.7
b Male E. B. Cumana (Bridges). 6.45 3.2 3.3 0.65
c Male Imm. E. B. Cumana (Bridges). 6.1 3.1 3.05 0.65
d Male A. Boucard. Carupano, Venezuela (Goering). 7.1 3.15 3.4 0.75
The figures (Plate II.) are taken from b in my own collection ; that of the female from a specimen in the British Museum.

A Monograph Ploceidae And Fringillidae
Bartlett, Edward. A Monograph of the Weaver-birds, Ploceidae, and Arboreal and Terrestrial Finches, Fringillidae. 1888.
Title in Book: 
Cardinalis phoeniceus
Book Author: 
Bartlett, Edward
Page No: 
Common name: 
Venezuelan Cardinal
Vermilion Cardinal
Cardinalis phoeniceus

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