Caprimulgus indicus, Latham, Ind. Orn, ii. p. 588 (1790) ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 190 ; C. jotaka, Temm, and Schlegel, F. Jap. Aves, p. 37, pl. 12 (1847) ; David and Oust, Ois. Chine, p. 67 ; Hartert, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xvi. p. 552 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 162 ; kelaarti, Blyth, J.A.S.B. xx. p. 175 (1851) ; Legge, B. of Ceyl. p. 337 ; Hartert, tom. cit. p. 555.
Yotaka, Jap. ; Chippak, Hindu.
Male ad. (India). Upper parts dark brown, spotted and blotched with black ; crown, nape, and back with black spots and streaks throughout ; an indistinct cellar of buff spots ; wing-coverts with whitish or fulvous spots ; scapulars boldly marked with large black spots and broad buff margins ; first four primaries with a large white spot in the middle ; tail-feathers except the middle ones with well defined black bars, all but the middle ones, with white subterminal bands ; under parts buff, barred with brown, darker on the breast ; a large white spot on the throat, and a moustachial stripe buffy white ; bill vinous brown, paler at the base, the tip black ; legs vinous brown ; iris dark brown. Wing 8.8, tail 5.7, tarsus, feathered in front, 0.65 inch. The female lacks the white on the tail- feathers, and the spots on the primaries are buff, the spot on the throat being also buff. Compared with C. europoeus this species is much darker and mure boldly marked with black, especially on the crown, and has more white on the throat.
Hab. India, Ceylon, Burma, Cochin China, Manchuria, Mongolia, Kan-su, south-eastern Siberia, Corea, Japan ; in the winter it migrates south to Malacca, Java, Borneo, and New Guinea.
In most of its central range this species appears to be a resident, but in other parts migratory. It frequents forests and jungle and in its general habits does not materially differ from G. europoeus, from which species it can readily be distinguished in having a subterminal white band on all but the middle tail- feathers, whereas G. europoeus has only the two outer feathers on each side tipped with white. Its cry is described as tchouk, tchouk, tchouk, continuously uttered in the twilight. In Dauria eggs have been found in June and August, and in India it breeds from March to May, and probably therefore raises two broods in the season. The eggs, 2 in number, are placed on the ground, no nest being made, and are dull white blotched with three shades of umber and one shade of ashy brown, and measure 1.22 by 0.88 and 1.19 by 0.91. Indian specimens of this bird are smaller than those from Japan.
620. Caprimulgus indicus