(1336) Calyptomena viridis.
The Green Broadbill.
Calyptomena viridis Baffles, Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii, p. 295 (1822), (Sumatra); Blanf. & Oates. iii, p. 12.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. - Male. A small yellow spot above and in front of the eye; forehead, completely concealed by the bristly loral feathers, a large spot behind the ear-coverts and three broad bands across the wing velvety-black; inner webs of all wing-quills and terminal portions of outer webs of primaries black; remainder of plumage grass-green, darkest on the crown, back, scapulars and innermost secondaries; the sides of the head, rump and upper tail-coverts are very bright and paler green; the abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts are sometimes faintly washed with blue.
Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; upper mandible pale to dark horny-brown or quite black in old males, the tip and the lower mandible light reddish-horny or brownish-orange ; legs pale dirty or horny green, sometimes tinged with bluish, sometimes with purplish-grey.
Measurements. Total length about 190 mm.; wing 98 to 104 mm.; lad 38 to 40 mm.; tarsus 20 to 21 mm.; culmen 30 to 11 mm. long and 14 to 15 mm. wide at the gape.
Female. Paler everywhere than the male, especially below; a ring round the eye shows up bright grass-green, but the rump, upper tail-coverts and sides of the head are not conspicuously brighter than the surrounding parts; there are no black markings and the loral feathers are not so long as in the male.
Distribution. Southern Burma and Siam, through the Malay States to Sumatra and Borneo.
Nidification. The Green Broadbill breeds in Tenasserim in April and in July in Borneo, in which month Moulton took two eggs very hard-set. The nest is like that of the other Broad bills but has generally more grass used in its construction. It is also more solid and better put together with fewer decorations and, as a rule, very little, tail. It is built on a hanging bough over water but seems always to be placed half-way down the branch and not at the tip. The lining is of soft grass and leaves, rarely of green leaves. Like all Broadbills this species seems to prefer to have its nest overhanging water, if possible over quickly running streams. The eggs number two or three and are a uniform pale yellow-cream with no markings of any kind. "They vary between 27.2 x 19.5 and 30.6 x 21.3 mm. in size and fourteen eggs average 28.9 x 20.3 mm.
Habits. Davison and Hopwood both obtained this beautiful Broadbill in Tenasserim either in dense evergreen or in rather thin forest, hut generally the former. The birds are most active in the mornings and evenings, at which times they may be seen hopping about from one branch to another and feeding almost entirely on fruit, berries and figs. They keep much to the tops of the higher trees, sometimes singly or in pairs, at other times collecting in small flocks. Their note is said to be a soft, pleasant whistle.