(2162) Calidris tenuirostris.
THE EASTERN- KNOT.
Totanus tenuirostris Horsf, Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii, p. 192 (1821) (Java). Tringa crassirostris. Blanf. & Oates, iv, p. 277.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. - Breeding plumage. Whole head black, each feather streaked laterally with white, broader on the hind-neck; back black, each feather narrowly edged with rufous-white and with a little rufous marking; scapulars with broad chestnut markings on both webs; lower back brown, the feathers edged with grey; upper tail-coverts barred black and white; tail-feathers grey-brown, pale-edged and the lateral also pale-shafted; wing-coverts brown, edged with whitish and with darker centres and shafts; primary coverts and primaries blackish, the latter white-shafted and with paler inner webs ; outer secondaries paler and inner secondaries darker again, the former with broader white edges, the latter with rufous-white edges ; sides of head, chin, throat and fore-neck white streaked with black; upper breast black with very fine white edges; lower breast and posterior flanks white with blackish spots; centre of abdomen pure white; under tail-coverts white, lightly spotted with black ; axillaries white with contour-lines of light brown.
Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown, bill dusky-black; legs and feet greenish-dusky (Armstrong).
Measurements. Wing 165 to 185 mm.; tail 63 to 69 mm.; tarsus 34 to 38 mm.; culmen 39 to 47 mm. It is possible that there are two races of this bird, though it is impossible to divide them until the breeding-haunts are known. Indian birds have the wing from 176 to 185 mm., whilst Burmese and Malayan birds have it only 165 to 175 mm.
In Winter the upper parts are pale greyish-brown ; each feather with dark shafts, broadening to streaks on the head and neck; longer feathers of the mantle and scapulars with white-edged tips; chin and throat pure white ; sides of head and neck, foreneck, upper breast and flanks white spotted with brown; remainder of lower plumage pure white.
Distribution. In Summer Central and Eastern Siberia to Japan. In Winter it is found South in India, the Malay Archipelago and East to Australia. In India it has been obtained on the coasts of Sind and Baluchistan South to the Laccadives on the West coast; near Calcutta and at Madras on the East coast; on the Andamans and the coasts of Burma.
Habits. Nothing recorded. In India it occurs in small flocks and singly on the mud-flats on the sea-shore and on migration from Siberia on the Chinese Eastern coasts in very large flocks.