1478. Tringa alpina.
Tringa alpina, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 249 (1766); Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 228, 487 ; id. Cat. no. 883 ; Beid, S. F. x, p. 70 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 354; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 425. Tringa cinclus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 251 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 269 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 690; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 240; Hume, S. F. i, p. 242; Adam, ibid. p. 396; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 417; Butler, S. F. v, pp. 233, 236. Pelidna alpina, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 602.
Coloration, In winter plumage this closely resembles the last species, T. subarquata ; it is Smaller, with a shorter bill, and differs in having the rump and upper tail-coverts very dark brown, and the middle rectrices, which project considerably beyond the others at the end, much darker than the rest. There is also more white on the secondaries, and the shaft-lines on the upper surface are less defined.
The summer plumage is very different. The crown, back, and scapulars are bright rufous with black centres ; hind neck and sides of neck hoary white with black streaks ; and all the lower breast and upper abdomen occupied by a large sooty-black patch.
Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown.
Length 7.5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4.5 ; tarsus .95 ; bill from gape 1.8.
Distribution. The Dunlin breeds in Northern Europe and Asia, and migrates in winter to Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and South-western Asia. It is found commonly in the cold season throughout Northern India as far east as Calcutta, and stragglers have been obtained as far south as Raipur; but it has not been observed in Southern India, in Ceylon, nor east of the Bay of Bengal.
Habits, &c. The Dunlin in India is as common inland as on the coast, and is found along the larger rivers, on the edges of marshes, and in similar places, in flocks. According to Hume it is far more abundant inland than T. subarquata.