Calidris arenaria (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 251 (1766) ; Audubon, B. of Am. p. 230 ; Naum. vii. p. 353, Taf. 182 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 335 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 66 ; Newton, P.Z.S. 1871, pl. iv. fig. 2 (egg) ; Dresser, viii. p. 101, pls. 559, 560 ; Layard, B. of S. Afr. p. 362 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 467 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. 336 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 526 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 841 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 270 ; Bidgway, p. 162 ; Saunders, p. 597 ; Lilford, v. p. 97, pl. 42 ; Poynting, p. 175, pl. 37.
Sanderling variable, French ; Churrilla de tres dedos, Pitillos, Span. ; Piovanello tredatillo, Ital. ; Ufer-Sanderling, German ; Drieteenige-Strandlooper, Dutch ; Sandlober, Norweg, and Dan. ; Sandlopare, Swed. ; Hieta-sirriainen, Finn. ; Morskoi-Sujok, Russ. ; Medrouan, Moor.
Male ad. (England). Crown, nape, and upper parts richly varied black and rusty red ; rump dull ashy grey marked with blackish grey ; quills blackish ; wing-coverts dark ashy grey margined with dull white, and slightly marked with rufous ; middle tail-feathers blackish grey, the rest grey, the outermost nearly white ; sides of head, throat, and upper breast light rufous marked with black ; rest of under parts white ; bill and legs blackish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1.15, wing 4.85, tail 2.05, tarsus 1.0 inch ; hind-toe wanting. Female similar but less rufous. In winter both sexes have the upper parts light grey with darker stripes and the under parts white, with no rufous in the plumage.
Hab. The high northern portions of the Old and New Worlds ; in winter migrating south to South Africa, Burma, India, Ceylon, the Laccadives, China, Japan, Australia, and Chile.
Frequents the sea coast, associating with other Sandpipers, and is by no means shy. It feeds on small marine insects, worms, and crustaceans, and in the summer to some extent on the buds of Arctic plants. Its note is a shrill but not unpleasant wiek.
It breeds in Iceland (sometimes), Greenland, and (perhaps) Northern Siberia, the nest being a mere depression on the ground, and in June deposits 4 eggs, which resemble miniature eggs of the Curlew, and measure about 1.44 by 0.95.
1078. Calidris arenaria