537. LAPLAND BUNTING.
Calcarius lapponicus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 317 (1766) ; (Naum.) iv. p. 318, Taf. 108 ; (Hewitson) i. p. 182, pl. xlvi. figs. 1, 2 ; (Audub.) B. Am. pl. 365 ; (Gould) B. of E. iii. pl. 169 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit iii. pl. 30 ; (Newton) ii. p. 15 ; (Dresser) iv. p. 253, pls. 223, 225, fig. 1 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 579 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 557 ; Saunders, p. 223 ; Lilford, iv. p. 16, pl. 9 ; Ridgw. p. 404 ; C. calcaratus (Pall.), Reis. R.R. ii. p. 710, pl. E. (1773).
Lerchen-Spornammer, German ; Ijsgors, Dutch ; Lappsparf, Swed. ; Narksarmiutak, Greenl. ; Lapinsirkku, Finn. ; Varri-cicas, Lapp.
Male ad. (N. Russia). Head, neck, throat, and sides of breast black, the side of the lower throat white ; supercilium and a stripe down the sides of the neck white ; lower neck and fore part of back rich chestnut-red ; upper parts warm ochraceous and pale rusty red, broadly striped and blotched with black ; remiges and rectrices blackish margined with warm buff, the two outer tail-feathers largely white towards the end ; wing-coverts broadly margined with rufous ; under parts white, the flanks striped with black ; bill yellow, but black at the tip ; legs black ; the hind-claw elongated, straight, lark-like ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.5, wing 3.75, tail 2.6, tarsus 0.85, hind-toe with claw 0.85 inch. In winter the colours, especially the black, are obscured by buff margins to the feathers, the chestnut collar is obscured, and the head is marked with dull rufous. The female has the crown and back marked with brown, the chestnut collar is duller and marked with black, the throat and sides of the head arc buff marked with black, and the upper parts have the margins to the feathers paler and broader.
Hab. N. Europe, Asia, and America, not far below the Arctic Circle, but not in Iceland or Greenland, straying south in winter to Central and Southern Scandinavia, rarely to Great Britain and continental Europe ; wintering in Asia in Mongolia, Manchuria, and N. China ; in America in the Northern United States and Canada.
In habits it resembles the true Buntings. On the ground it runs with ease, and though restless is not shy, and it frequently perches on shrubs and bushes. Its call-note resembles that of P. nivalis, but is higher in tone and not so strong, and its clear full song, which is uttered as it rises in the air and gently descends, is like that of a Reed Bunting. The nest, which is placed on the ground or in a low bush, is constructed of rootlets, grass-bents, and moss, and is always lined with feathers. The eggs, 5 to 6 in number, are usually deposited In June, and are olive-brown or greyish green with brown spots and blotches, sometimes with a few dark brown scrawling lines, and measure about 0.81 by 0.60.
537. Calcarius lapponicus
537. LAPLAND BUNTING.