(1226) Alaudula raytal adamsi.
The Indus Sand-Lark.
Alauda adamsi Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 405 (Agrore Valley). Alaudula adamsi. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 331.
Vernacular names. Retal (Hind.).
Description. Differs in no way from the Ganges Sand-Lark except in having a smaller, more slender bill. If a series of the two birds are laid alongside one another, this race shows a very faint vinous tinge above, which is absent in the Ganges bird.
Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird.
Measurements. The same as in A. r. raytal, perhaps a little larger. Wing 74 to 88 mm.; culmen 10 mm. or less and finer than in the Ganges Sand-Lark.
Distribution. Sind and the Punjab, East to the Jumna.
Nidification. Very similar to that of the Ganges Sand-Lark but it sometimes breeds in the sandy Sind deserts well away from any river, the nest being placed in a hollow under a Salsola bush, a plant which grows commonly round about Karachi and elsewhere in desert, country. The eggs are not distinguishable from those of the Eastern form and, like them, are very glossless. Forty eggs average 19.0 x 14.2 mm.: maxima 21.2 X 14.5 and 19.7 X 15.0 mm.; minima 17.7 X 14.4 and 17.8 x 13.4 mm. Most eggs are laid in April, a good many in March and a few in May.
Habits. Very similar to those of the preceding bird but it seems to keep less strictly to rivers and their adjoining country and, also, it is found right down to the sea-coast and all along the shores. This difference is, however, due to the fact that we have sandy shores on the West coast, muddy ones on the East, of India. Both this and the last race are tame, confiding little birds, very active on their legs though so feeble on the wing compared with other species of this family.