1015. STONE CURLEW.
OEdicnemus scolopax (S. G. Gmel.), Reise Russl, iii. p. 87, pl. 16 (1774) ; Dresser, vii. p. 401, pl. 512 ; Blanf. F. Brit Ind. Birds, iv. p. 204 ; Saunders, p. 529 ; Lilford, v. p. 11, pl. 4 ; Poynting, i. p. 6, pl. 1 ; C. oedicnemus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 255 (1766) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv, p. 4 ; OE. crepitans, Temm. Man. d’Orn, p. 332 (1815) ; Naum. vii. p. 92, Taf. 172 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 288 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 35 ; Hewitson, i. p. 288, pl. lxxiv.
OEdicneme criard, French ; Alcaravao, Portug. ; Alcaravan, Span. ; Occhione, Ital. ; Triel, Dickfuss, Gorman ; Grid, Dutch ; Triel, Dan. ; Tjockfot, Swed. ; Avdotka, Lashin, Russ. ; El Karuana, Moor. ; Keruan, Arab. ; Karwanak, Barsiri, Hindu.
Male ad. (England). Upper parts pale brown streaked with dark brown, the sides of the head paler ; a light streak over the eye and a dark one from the base of the mandible to the ear-coverts ; wings, when extended, with two distinct white bars ; base of tail and middle feathers mottled pale and dark brown, tail then whitish tipped with black ; under parts white, the breast, lower throat, and flanks washed with buff and streaked with blackish brown ; under tail-coverts rufous buff ; bill greenish yellow at base, blackish at point ; legs pale yellow ; iris golden yellow. Culmen 1.60, wing 9.5, tail 5.0, tarsus 3.0 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird resembles the adult, but the markings are less clearly defined.
Hab. Temperate and Southern Europe, a migrant in the northern portions of its range, but otherwise chiefly resident ; Great Britain ; rare in Ireland ; accidental in Scandinavia ; North Africa south to Abyssinia ; Asia Minor and Asia east to India, Burma, and Ceylon, north into Central Asia.
Inhabits open, flat country, chiefly desert sandy places, and not, as a rule, cultivated ground ; it is to some extent cre¬puscular, and feeds late into the night. In its general habits it reminds one much of the Bustards. Its cry is a loud and shrill Curlew, chiefly uttered at night. It feeds on worms, insects, larvae, snails, &c. Its nest is hardly a depression on the soil in some dry place, and its eggs, 2 to 3 in number, are usually laid from early in April to the end of June, and are stone buff, sometimes with a greenish tinge, profusely spotted and blotched with blackish brown surface markings, and purplish grey or greyish brown shell blotches, and measure about 2.10 by 1.47. Sometimes two broods are reared in the season.
1015. Oedicnemus scolopax
1015. STONE CURLEW.