Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw.
140. :- Homraius bicornis, Lin. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. I, p. 242 ; Butler, Deccan, &c.; Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 383.
THE GREAT HORNBILL.
Length, 4.5 to 4.7; expanse, 63 to 66 ; tail, 15.5 to 16.75 ; wing, 18.25 to 19; tarsus, 2.73 to 3; bill from gape, 9.75 to 10.6.
Length, 41.75 to 44; expanse, 54 to 59.28; tail, 14.5 to 17.75; wing, 17.25 to 18.25 ; tarsus, 2.45 to 2.75 ; bill from gape, 8.25 to 9.
General color of bill and casque yellow; paler on the lower mandible, but varying much in depth of color.
The upper mandible is more or less tinted with red at the tip and with orange in the medial portion ; the sides of the casque have generally an orange tinge, and the flat or rather curved portion of the casque is generally tinged with orange, intermingled with red.
In some specimens the coloration is very bright, in others the whole bill and casque is duller and paler.
In the male, the posterior portion of the casque, a triangular patch on . each side of the casque in front, and the truncated portion of the culmen from three to five inches downwards from the anterior margin of the casque, are black.
In the female, the posterior portion of the casque is red ; there is no patch on the side of the casque, and the truncated portion of the culmen in front of the casque or more is red.
In the male the irides are blood-red; in the female pearly-white ; the orbital region dark fleshy-pink; the eyelids black.
The legs and feet are dull greenish-plumbeous, or pale dingy glaucous-green ; claws dark greenish-horny.
Head and base of bill all' round, back, wings, and belly, black; neck, ends of upper tail-coverts, tail, thigh-coverts, vent, under tail-coverts, and wing-spot, white, the latter formed by the edges of the greater-coverts ; the base of the primaries, and the tips of all the quills, also white ; tail with a broad black band towards the terminal third; the neck, and sometimes the wing-spot, are often smeared yellow from the secretion of the uropygial gland.
The Great Hornbill is a permanent resident in the forest-clad portions of the Sahyadri range, where it is not uncommon. It has not been recorded from any other portion of our limits.