321. Clangula glaucion.
THE GARROT or GOLDEN-EYED POCHARD.
Glaucion= a grey-eyed water-bird in Athenaeus, 395 B. O. ; from =bluish-grey. Generally Latinised into glaucium by pre-Linnaean writers, and always by botanists, including Linnaeus.
Male 16" to 19"; 2 to 2 1/2 lbs. Female 15 1/2" to 16 1/2"; 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. Legs yellow. Bill bluish. Head black-green, with white mouth-patch. Neck, breast, and below white. Back and tail black. Remiges twenty-six.— Female: Head and upper neck brown. Imperfect collar white. Breeds in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, and migrates in winter to S. Europe, N. Africa, Persia, N. India (rare), China, and the United States of America. Ten to nineteen eggs (2.3 x 1.6), pale green. (B. 1610. H. & M. iii. 285.)
Also C. islandica. 20". The Iceland Duck. Legs yellow. Bill plumbeous. Head and neck glossy blue-black. Triangular white patch across lores. Back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and wing black. Long white patch on wing. Tail dark grey. Iceland, migrating to N. America and occasionally to Europe.
C. albeola. 12 1/2". The Buffel-headed Duck. Legs pink. Bill bluish black. Head and upper neck metallic green, bronze, and violet. Patch of white from eye to occiput. Neck all round, breast, and below white.— Female: Head, neck, and above grey-brown. Ear-coverts white. N. America.
Also the genus Harelda. With crest and central tail long and pointed. Edges of upper mandible partly bent inwardly. One species, viz.—
H. glacialis. 22" The Long-tailed Duck. Legs blue. Bill pinkish, with base and tip dark grey. Head and neck white. Forehead and sides of head grey. Dark oval patch on each side of neck, above black. Remiges twenty-six. Beneath white. Central tail black, laterals white.— Female: 16". Forehead, crown, and nape brown. White neck-ring. Arctic regions, visiting in winter the Caspian, Asia, N. Japan, China, N. America. Eggs (2.1 x 1.5) pale olive.
Also the genus Cosmonetta. With no distinct crest. Bill conical, almost tapering to a point. One species, viz.—
C. histrionica. 17 1/2". The Harlequin Duck. Legs brown. Bill blue. A black band from base of bill over the crown to occiput margined white in front and chestnut behind. Broad patch of white at base of bill. Spot on ear-coverts and a band on side of neck white. Lower neck with white collar and a white crescentic band on side of breast. Speculum blue. General plumage slate colour.— Female: Above brown. White patch in front and below eye and on ear-coverts. Iceland, N. America, and N. E. Asia, south in winter to Europe, California, and Japan. Said to breed in the Ural. Eggs (2.2 x 1.6) buff.
Also the genus Oedemia. General plumage of males black, and of the females grey-brown, but not barred. Six species, viz.—
OE. nigra. 20". The Common Scoter. Legs black. Bill black, with yellow patch round nostrils, and a bulb at base. All black. Remiges twenty-six. Tail of sixteen feathers. N. Palaearctic region, winters in the Baltic and on coasts of W. Europe, and occasionally the Azores and the Mediterranean. Six to nine eggs (2.6 x 1.7), sandy buff.
OE. americana. 17" to 21 1/2". Similar to OE. nigra, but basal half of upper mandible, including knob, yellow. N. America and N. E. Asia, migrating south to California and Japan.
OE. fusca. 22". The Velvet Scoter. Legs crimson. Bill orange. All black, except a small white patch under eye and white wing-band.— Female: Sooty, no white on head. N. Palaearctic region, south in winter to Europe, Black Sea and Caspian. Occasional in Greenland.
OE. deglandi. 20" to 23". Similar to OE. fusca, but flanks are olive-brown. N. America, in winter south to the Great Lakes.
OE. carbo. Similar to OE. Deglandi, but black more intense. N.E. Asia, south in winter to Japan and China.
OE. perspicillata. 21". The Surf Scoter. All black, except patches of white on forehead and nape.
Also the genus Tachyeres. With central tail narrow, short, and curled up. One species, viz.—
T. cinereus. 30". The Loggerhead. Legs orange. Bill orange, nail black. Alar tubercles orange. Head and neck grey. Red patch on throat. Above grey, banded darker. Abdomen white. Straits of Magellan and Falkland Isles.
Also the genus Camptolaemus. With some patches of stiff feathers on the cheeks. One species, viz.—
C. labradorius. 22", The Labrador Duck. Legs yellow. Bill blue, sides of base and edges orange, rest black. Lower mandible spatulate. Head, neck, throat, scapulars, and wings (except primaries) white. Neck-collar, back, rump, upper tail-coverts, tail, and below black. Now supposed to be extinct. Formerly N. Atlantic coast of N. America.
Also the genus Heniconetta. With edges of upper mandible bent inwardly, end of lower mandible spatulate, and metallic speculum in both sexes. One species, viz.—
H. stelleri. 18". The Rufous-breasted Eider Duck. Legs dark grey. Bill lead colour, tip white. Head and neck white. Lores and short tuft olive. Eye-space, spot on tuft, and neck-collar black. Chin and throat black, followed by two white rings. Above black. Below tawny. Black spot on each side of breast. Tertials more or less falcate. Arctic and sub-Arctic coast, occasionally found in temperate Europe.
Also the genus Arctonetta. With a pad of feathers encircling the eyes. One species, viz.—
A. fischeri. 21 1/2". The Blue-eyed Duck. Legs olive. Bill orange. Crown and occiput with hood of stiffened hair-like green feathers. White pad on orbits bordered black in front and behind. Dark green stripe below the eye. Throat, neck, back, and falcated tertials, and a patch on each side of rump white. Rump, upper tail-coverts, and below smoky grey. Alaska.
Also the genus Somateria. With lores separated from forehead by a bare space. Bill rather narrow and pointed. Inner secondaries sickle-shaped. Four species, viz.—
S. mollissima. 22". The Common Eider Duck. Legs light olive. Bill olive, nail brownish white. Crown black, with white central line. Nape with stiff pale green feathers. Cheeks, neck, back, and scapulars white. Back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black. Throat white. Below black.— Female: Dark brown, with white tips to some of the secondaries and the greater wing-coverts. From Iceland to the Kara Sea, migrating to the Baltic, North Sea, English Channel, and occasionally S, Europe. Eggs (3.1 x 2.0) greenish buff. Corresponds with S. borealis, the Nearctic form from E. Arctic America.
S. dresseri. Similar to S. mollissima, but throat with a V-shaped dusky mark. Atlantic coast of N. America, south in winter to the Great Lakes.
S. v. nigrum. Similar to S. dresseri, but throat mark is black. N.W. America and N.E. Asia.
S. spectabilis. 24". The King Eider. Legs orange. Bill with basal tubercles orange. . Crown grey. Black line of feathers round base of bill. Black spot under eye. Cheeks, throat, upper neck and upper back white. Narrow black chevron under the chin. Breast buff. Upper tail-coverts, tail, and under parts black-brown. Arctic regions, migrating south in winter to California, and rarely to British Isles, France, and Scandinavia. Eggs (2.5 x 1.8) greenish yellow.