Clangula glaucion (Linn.), Syst, Nat. i. p. 201 (1766) ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 31 ; Dresser, vi. p. 595, pl. 440 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br, Mus. xxvii. p. 376 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 464 ; Saundersi, p. 451 ; A. clangula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 201 (1766) ; Naum. xii. p. 161, Taf. 316 ; (David and Oust.), Ois. Chine, p. 505 ; (Tacz,), F. O. Sib. O. p. 1171 : Bidgway p. 105 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 115, pl. 48 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 253 ; C. vulgaris Fleming, Brit. An. p. 120 (1828) ; Gould, B. of E v. pl. 379 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 435, pl. cxix. fig. 1 ; C. americana Bp. Comp. List. p. 58 (1838) ; Ridg¬way, p. 105.
Garrot, French ; Retor male, Perdigana d'aigua female, Span. ; Quatr'occhi, Ital. ; Schellente, German : Brileend, Dutch ; Hvinand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Knipa, Swed. ; Sotka, Telkha, Finn. ; Gogol, Russ. ; Shinori-gamo, Jap.
Male ad. (Norway). Head and upper neck black glossed with bottle- green ; feathers on crown and nape elongated ; lower neck and under parts white ; back, rump, lesser wing-coverts, primaries, and tail black, the last tinged with grey ; speculum white ; scapulars white externally, margined with black ; a large white spot on each cheek close to the gape ; lower flanks and crissum marked with black ; bill blackish ; legs orange- yellow ; iris yellow. Culmen 1.4, wing 8.8, tail 3.8, tarsus 1.55 inch. The female has the head and upper neck deep rich brown, the lower neck sides of fore-back slate-grey with pale tips ; upper parts greyish black ; under parts whiter, the flanks greyish brown. The male in late simmer resembles the female, but may always be distinguished by its pure white wing-coverts.
Hab. Europe in the high north, migrating in winter to south Europe and the northern coasts of Africa ; Northern Asia as far north as Kamchatka, migrating in winter to Japan, Corea, China, and India ; North America, in summer from Maine and Canada northward, migrating in winter south to Cuba and Mexico.
In the summer it is found inland and being usually unmolested during the breeding season it is by no means shy, but in the winter season, when it frequents the sea-coast it is very shy and wary. It is a very expert diver, obtaining its food under water and feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects, and aquatic vegetable substance. It flies swiftly with a whistling sound. It breeds in the high north in hollow trees, in nesting-boxes set up for that purpose, and lines the nest-hole plentifully with down. The eggs 10 to 12, sometimes as many as 19 in number, are usually deposited in June, and are greyish green, smooth in texture of shell and measure about 2.40 by 1.55.
862. Clangula glaucion