Bubo ignavus, Forst. Syn. Cat. B. B. p. 3 (1817) ; Newton, i. p. 168 ; Dresser, v. p. 339, pl. 315 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. ii. p. 14 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib O. p. 143 ; Blanford, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iii. p. 284 ; Saunders, p. 309 ; Lilford, i. p. 97, pl. 46 ; Strix bubo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 131 (1766) ; Naum. i. p. 440, Taf. 44 ; B. maximus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 57 (1828) ; Gould, B. of E. i. pl. 37 ; id. B. of Gt. B. pl. 30.
Grand-due, French ; Bufo, Portug. ; Buho grande, Span. ; Gufo reale, Ital. ; Uhu, German ; Bjergugle, Dan. and Norweg. ;
Berguf, Swed. ; Palljiskuolffi, Lidno, Lapp. ; Huuhkaja, Finn. ; Filin, Russ.
Male ad. (Sweden). Upper parts generally reddish ochreous or reddish town, marked and marbled with black ; rump and upper tail-coverts rusty rufous barred with black ; quills blackish with yellowish brown, the bars vermiculated with black ; tail rufescent ochreous, barred and marbled with black ; two conspicuous tufts on the head ; facial disk rufous grey speckled and faintly barred with black ; throat white ; under parts brownish ochreous marked and barred with black, the feathered legs more rufous and less barred ; bill and claws blackish born ; iris rich orange, Culmen 2.5, wing 18.0, tail 10.5, tarsus 3.1 inch. The female differs only in being somewhat larger.
Hab. Europe generally, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean, but somewhat rare in North Africa ; a rare straggler to Great Britain ; does not seem to occur far east of the Ural in the north, but is met with in the Himalayas.
Frequents forests and rocky localities and is nocturnal in its habits, though not dazed by the sunlight when disturbed by day. Its cry is a loud, deep hu, hu modulated in various ways. It is one of the boldest of our European birds of prey and very destructive to game, but it does not disdain rats, mice, hares, rabbits, crows, etc., etc. It nests in the rocks or on the ground, or in the forests will utilize the nest of one of the larger birds of prey, and from March to May, according to latitude, it deposits 2 or 3, seldom 4, roundish pure white eggs, somewhat rough in grain of shell, which average about 2.29 by 1.91.
696. Bubo ignavus