226. Botaurus stellaris

226. Botaurus stellaris.

THE BITTERN.

Baz, India.

Male 26" to 30". Legs greenish. Bill 3" to 3 1/2", yellow and brown. Crown uniform black, not barred. Moustache black. Neck yellow, with brown spots. Quills irregularly barred black and rufous. Temperate portion of Palaearctic region, visiting N. Africa, N.W. India, Burma, and China. Not observed in S. India, Ceylon, or Tenasserim. Three to five eggs (2«0 x 1-5), sandy green. (J. 936. B. 1574.)

Also B. capensis. 25". Similar to B. stellaris, but quills not so distinctly barred. From S. Africa.

B. paeciloptilus. 24". With primary coverts uniform brown. From Australia and New Zealand.

B. lentiginosus. 28". With primary coverts uniform slaty, with rufous tips. From N. and C. America and occasionally in Europe.

B. pinnatus. 30". With crown of head barred. Primary coverts blackish brown, with rufous tips. From north of S. America.

Also with tarsus as long as mid toe and claw:—

The genus Nannocnus. One species— N. eurythmus, 12", above chestnut, secondaries shorter than primaries, from E. Siberia to Japan, China to Borneo and Celebes.

The genus Ardeiraellus. One species—A. sturmi, 12 1/2", above slaty grey, secondaries equal to or longer than primaries, from Africa, extending occasionally to Canaries and Pyrenees.

Also with tarsus much longer than mid toe and claw:—

The genus Erythrophoyx. Two species— E. woodfordi, 18", with under tail-coverts sandy, from Solomon Islands; and E. praetermissa, 19", with under tail-coverts dark grey, from Molucca Islands.

Also like the family of Ardeidae, with hind toe on same plane as the other toes; the family of Balaenicipitidae, with culmen flattened and grooved; a distinct hook toward the tip, no webs at base of toes, two powder-down patches, and loral space bare. One species— Balaeniceps rex, 46", bill 8", slightly crested, the Shoebill, from the Upper White Nile.

Also the family of Scopidae. With culmen narrow and ridged. A distinct dertral hook at the tip. No powder-down patches. Lores feathered, and distinct webs at base of toes. One species— S. umbretta, 20", bill 3£ 1/2", head strongly crested, the Umbrette, or Hammerhead, from Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar. (B.M. Cat., xxvi. 242-290.)

BookTitle: 
Game, Shore And Water Birds Of India
Reference: 
Le Messurier, Augustus. Game, Shore, and Water Birds of India Fourth Edition, 1904.
Title in Book: 
226. Botaurus stellaris
Book Author: 
A Le Messurier
CatNo: 
226
Year: 
1904
Page No: 
204
Common name: 
Bittern
M_ID: 
2190
M_CN: 
Eurasian Bittern
M_SN: 
Botaurus stellaris
Volume: 
4th ed.
Term name: 
id: 
13025

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