Ampelis garrulus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 297 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p. 143, pl. 59 ; (Gould), B. of E. ii. pl. 160 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 21 ; Newton, i. p. 523 ; Dresser, iii. p. 429, pl. 155 ; Newton, Ibis, 1861, p. 92, pl. iv. (eggs) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 212 ; Saunders, p. 155 ; Lilford, ii. p. 91, pl. 42 ; Ridgway, p. 464.
Jaseur de. Boheme, French ; Beccofrusone, Ital. ; Pestvogel, Dutch ; Siedenschwanz, Germ. ; Sidensvands, Dan. and Norweg. ; Sidensvans, Swed. ; Tilhi, Korva-rastas, Finn. ; Pallje-rastis, Lapp. ; Sviristiel, Russ. ; Ki-ren-jaku, Jap.
Male ad. (Finland). Upper parts greyish brown, greyer on the rump ; under parts greyish drab ; crown with a long crest ; forehead, sides of crest, and under tail-coverts chestnut-red ; lores, a streak through the eye, and throat deep black ; quills blackish, yellow near the end of the outer web, and edged with white at the tip ; secondaries deep grey, white at the end, the shaft with a red, wax-like tip ; tail grey at base, then black broadly tipped with bright yellow ; bill blackish horn, paler at the base ; legs black ; iris rich reddish brown. Culmen 0.65, wing 4.55, tail 2.8, tarsus 0.8 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the upper parts paler brown slightly streaked, the throat and under parts greyish buff streaked with yellowish buff, the white on the secondaries absent.
Hab. During the summer the arctic portions of the Old and New Worlds, migrating south in winter, its migrations being very irregular.
In its habits it is very tame and confiding, though less so in the summer than in the winter. When perching it sits very erect, its crest being clearly visible, and when disturbed it at once raises and spreads it. It is as a rule a very silent bird, and the only note I ever heard it utter was a low plaintive whistle. It feeds on insects of various kinds, and in the winter on berries, especially those of the juniper and mountain-ash. It breeds within the Arctic Circle, the nest being placed in a birch or fir-tree, usually 10 to 12 feet from the ground. It is constructed of twigs, moss, and lichen, lined with fine lichen. The eggs, which are usually deposited in June, are pale blue with pale purplish shell-markings and black surface-spots, but occasionally the ground colour is warm pinkish In size they average about 0.96 by 0.69.
372. Ampelis garrulus