858. Scaup Duck.
AEthyia marila (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 196 (1766) ; (Naum.), xii. p. 88, Taf. 311 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 426, pl. cxvii. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pl. 371 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 24 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 565, pl. 436 ; (David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, p. 507 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus, p. 355 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 1164 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 462 ; (Saunders), p. 449 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 112, pl. 46 ; (Ridg-way), p. 103.
Canard milouinan, French ; Moretta-grigia, Ital. ; Bergente, German ; Toppereend, Dutch ; Bjergand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Bergand, Swed. ; Stuora-fietag, Lapp. ; Iso-sorrti Tunturi-sotka, Finn. ; Sorovoi-Nyrok, Beloglaska, Russ. ; Nakihashiro-gamo,Jap.
Male ad. (N. Russia). Head, neck, forepart of hack, breast, rump, upper and under tail-coverts, and tail black ; head and upper neck glossed with bottle-green ; upper parts white vermiculated and barred with black ; speculum white tipped with black ; under parts white, the lower abdomen faintly vermiculated with black ; bill and legs light plumbeous ; webs blackish ; iris yellow. Culmen 1.85, wing 8.5, tail 2.8, tarsus 1.4 inch. The female has the forepart of the head and chin white ; rest of the head, neck, and breast dark reddish brown ; upper parts dark brown, the back slightly vermiculated with white ; abdomen dull white, the flanks vermiculated with brown ; crissum and under tail-coverts dark brown slightly vermiculated with white ; bill and legs darker than in the male. The male in late summer resembles the female but the head and neck are blacker, the back more barred with dirty white, and the soft parts as above.
Hab. Europe generally, north to Lapland and Iceland ; rare in Greenland ; Southern Europe and North Africa in winter ; Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in winter to Northern India and China. The American form, AE. nearctica (Stejn.) is said to differ in having the six inner quills without distinct white spaces on the inner webs.
Is an expert diver, obtaining its food, which consists chiefly of small shellfish and minute crustacea and marine plants, chiefly by diving. It swims with ease and flies tolerably swiftly, usually not high above the surface of the water. It breeds in June or early in July, nesting on the ground under a bush, sometimes under a stone or in a hole, its nest generally consist¬ing only of grass. Its eggs, 8 to 9, sometimes 11 in number, are greyish stone-buff and measure about 2.48 by 1.75. East Asiatic birds (F. mariloides, Vig.) are said to have sometimes a purple gloss on the head.
858. Aethyia marila
858. Scaup Duck.