859. Tufted Duck.
AEthyia fuligula (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 207 (1766) ; (Naum.) xii. p. 64, Taf. 310 ; (Salvadori), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 363 ; (Blanf.), F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 463 ; (Ridgway), p. 103. AE. cristata (Leach), Syst. Cat. M. and B. Brit. Mus. p. 39 (1816) ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 430, pl. cxviii. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pl. 370 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 23 ; (Dresser), vi. p. 573, pl. 437 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 355 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 1167 ; (Saunders), p. 447 ; (Lil¬ford), vii. p. 113, pl. 47.
Morillon, French ; Negrella, Portug. ; Coquinero, Span. ; Moretta, Ital. ; Haubenente, Schopfente, German ; Kuifeend, Dutch ; Topand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Vigg, Swed. ; Ucib-fietag, Lapp. ; Pieni-sorrti Jouhisotka, Finn. ; Tschernett, Russ. ; Dubaru, Ablak, Hindu. ; Kinkurohajiro-gamo, Jap.
Male ad. (England). Head, neck, upper parts and wings, breast and under tail-coverts black ; head with a long crest and glossed with purple ; speculum white tipped with black : a few indistinct vermiculations on the back; under parts white, the lower abdomen washed with grey ; bill plumbeous tipped with black ; legs dull olive-plumbeous the webs blackish ; iris yellow. Culmen 1.8, wing 8.2, tail 2.8, tarsus 1.5 inch. The female has the head, neck, breast, and upper parts blackish brown with a faint purplish gloss ; under parts brownish grey ; forehead tinged with brownish white ; crest very short. In the late summer the plumage of the male is browner on the head and neck, the back and lower neck indistinctly powdered with greyish white ; crest shorter than in the spring.
Hab. Europe generally, north as far as Lapland ; Southern Europe and North Africa in winter, ranging south to Abyssinia ; Asia east to Japan, north to Kamchatka, south in winter to China and India, and of accidental occurrence in the Malay Archipelago and Polynesian Islands.
In general habits it most nearly resembles the Scaup Duck In the summer it frequents fresh-water and then feeds chiefly on vegetable matter, aquatic insects, frogs, &c., and in the winter it is found chiefly on the sea-coast, and then feeds on small shellfish, &c., obtaining its food chiefly by diving. Its nest, which is placed on the ground, close to, or not far from water is composed of grass-bents und a few leaves, matted together with sooty brownish black down with greyish white centres, and its eggs, usually 8 in number are deposited early in June, and are uniform pale olive-green or greenish buff, smooth in texture of shell and measure about 2.31 by 1.65.
859. Aethyia fuligula
859. Tufted Duck.