Anthus trivialis (Linn.) Syst. Nat. i. p. 288 (1766) ; Newton, i. p. 569 ; Dresser, iii. p. 309, pl. 132, fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 543 ; Saunders, p. 131 ; A. arboreus, Bechst. Naum, iii. p. 758, Taf. 84, fig. 2 ; Hewitson, i. p. 171, pl. xliii ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 139 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 14 ; Lilford, iii. p. 115, pl. 59.
Pipit des arbres, French ; Sombria, Portug. ; Cinceta, Span. ; Prispolona, Ital. ; Baumpieper, German ; Boompieper, Dutch ; Troepiber, Dan. ; Troepiploerke, Norweg. ; Tradpiplarka, Swed. ; Mestsa-kirvinen, Finn. ; Lasnoi-konek, Russ.
Male ad. (England). Differs from A. pratensis in having the hind claw much shorter and more curved, and in having the under parts more buff in tinge, besides being larger and having paler legs ; bill dark brown paler below ; legs pale flesh colour ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.6, wing 3.42, tail 2.7, tarsus 0.9, hind toe with claw 0.68, hind claw 0.3 inch.
Hab. Northern and central Europe ; northern Asia as far east as Krasnoyarsk, wintering in southern Europe, Africa, and western Asia.
In habits it differs from A. pratensis in frequenting woods, groves, and gardens in preference to open grassy localities, and is never seen far from trees and bushes, and perches freely on trees. Its call-note is loud and clear, though somewhat harsh, and its song is loud, rich, and full, somewhat resembling that of the Canary-bird. It is uttered when the bird is perched on a tree, or is circling on the wing, and never from on the ground. Its food consists chiefly, indeed almost solely, of insects and their larvae. Its nest is placed on the ground, usually in a wood or the border of a copse, well concealed amongst the grass, and is constructed of dried grass and moss, lined with finer grasses, and the eggs, from 4 to 5 or even 6 in number, vary considerably both in colour and markings, some being so closely marked with dark red spots on a greyish ground, as to appear almost uniform dark red, others are, on a purplish white ground, either marked with dark hair-brown, or blotched with a few large purplish brown patches, and others again are marbled and spotted with rich red on a reddish white ground. In size they average about 0.80 by 0.65. Two broods are usually raised in the season, the first eggs being deposited in May.
315. Anthus trivialis