841. Anthus maculatus.
The Indian Tree-Pipit.
Anthus maculatus*, Hodgs, in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844) ; A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 353 ; Hume, Cat. no. 596; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 547; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 209. Dendronanthus maculatus (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 135. Anthus agilis, Sykes, Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 354 (nec Sykes). Pipastes agilis (Sykes), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 228 ; Hume, N. & E. p. 382. Pipastes maculatus (Hodgs.), Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 250 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 608 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 316; Oates, B. B. i, p. 171.
Coloration. Resembles A. trivialis, but has the whole upper plumage strongly suffused with green, and the streaks and centres to the feathers much narrower and less well-defined; the supercilium is pale fulvous anteriorly and white posteriorly.
In the summer the green tinge is much subdued, and the supercilium becomes very white and distinct.
Bill bluish black, darker above, and yellowish at base of the lower mandible; iris brown; legs and feet flesh-colour.
Generally smaller than A. trivialis, the wing being seldom so much as 3.3, and frequently under 3.2 ; tail 2.5 ; tarsus .85.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the greater portion of the Empire, being found as far west as the Sutlej valley in the Himalayas and Rajputana and Guzerat in the plains. This species appears to breed in considerable numbers on the higher ranges of the Himalayas. To the south this Pipit extends down to the Palni hills, and probably to Cape Comorin. Its winter range extends to China and Cochin China. In summer it is found in Siberia, North China, and Japan.
Habits, &c. Breeds in the higher parts of the Himalayas (7000 to 12,000 feet) from May to July, constructing a nest of moss or grass on the ground under the shelter of a tussock of grass, and laying four eggs, which are thickly marked with dark brown and dingy purple, and appear to measure about .93 by .68.
This species and the preceding frequent gardens and localities which are well wooded, feeding on the ground and flying up to a branch when disturbed. They are somewhat social in the winter. The males of both are fine songsters in the breeding-season.
* Hodgson never described this species himself, and I should reject this name were a prior one available, which there is not.