840. Anthus trivialis.
Alauda trivialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). Alauda plumata, P. L. S. Mull. Natursyst. Suppl. p. 137 (1776). Anthus arhoreus, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iii, p. 706 (1807) ; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 354. Anthus agilis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 91; Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 278. Dendronanthus trivialis (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 135. Pipastes arboreus (Bechst), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 229 ; Hume & Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 226. Pipastes plumatus (Mull.), Hume, N. & E. p. 383. Anthus trivialis (Linn.), Hume, Cat. no. 597; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 543; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. n, p. 208. Pipastes trivialis (Linn.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 172.
The European Tree-Pipit, Jerd.
Coloration. Upper plumage sandy brown with large blaek streaks or centres to the feathers except the rump and upper tail-coverts which are very faintly marked; coverts and quills of wing dark brown margined with pale fulvous; tail dark brown with narrow pale margins, the outermost feather about half white, the white and brown meeting diagonally; the penultimate feather with a small white tip; a pale fulvous supercilium ; sides of the head mixed brown and fulvous ; lower plumage white tinged with fulvous; a short black moustachial streak ; the whole breast and the sides of the throat with large, well-defined black streaks; the sides of the body tinged with olivaceous and indistinctly streaked.
The young bird after the autumn moult resembles the adult, but is tinged with bright fulvous, especially on the throat and breast.
Iris dark brown ; legs and feet flesh-colour; bill dark brown above, pale- brown below tipped with dusky.
Length about 6.5; tail 2.7; wing 3.5; tarsus .85 ; bill from gape 6; hind claw about .3.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the western portions of the Empire. Judging from the specimens I have examined this species is found as far south as Belgaum and as far east as Manbhoom in Chutia Nagpur. Many years ago Hume identified a Pipit I sent to him from Pegu as this species, but I remember that the skin was a very bad one and I think it not improbable that some mistake was made regarding it. This bird winters in Southwestern Asia and in Africa, and summers in Europe and Northern Asia. A few birds of this species appear to breed in the Himalayas.
Habits, &c. A nest supposed to belong to this Pipit was a circular, shallow saucer, made of grass, lined with a few hairs and placed on the ground at the foot of a tuft of grass. It was found at Kotgarh in May and contained three eggs, which were greyish white, marked with dull purple and purplish brown, and measured about .85 by .63.
Anthus pratensis (Linn.), the Meadow-Pipit, is not unlikely to be found in the north-western parts of the Empire. It bears a close resemblance to A. trivialis, but may be recognized at once by its long hind claw.