(1185) Anthus trivialis haringtoni.
Anthus trivialis haringtoni Witherby, Bull. B. O. C., xxxvii, p. 43 (1917) (Khagan Valley). Anthus trivialis. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 302 (part).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Differs from the Common Tree-Pipit in having a longer, more coarse bill and in having the underparts more profusely and more boldly striated. It is also, on an average, a decidedly darker bird and is generally more suffused with fulvous on the chin, throat and breast.
Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black, the lower mandible fleshy; legs and feet flesh-colour (C. B. T. Whitehead).
Measurements. About the same as those of A. t. trivialis but the width of the bill at the nostrils measures 5.5 to 6 mm., as against about 5 mm, or less in that bird.
Distribution. A resident breeding bird from Turkestan to the North-West Frontier of India; digit, Kashmir and Garhwal. In Winter straggling South into North-West India.
Nidification. Similar to that of A. t. trivialis, breeding at high elevations, between 9,000 and 12,000 feet, from the Afghan Frontier to Gilgit and the greater part of Northern Kashmir. Whitehead and Harington both found this bird breeding in some numbers in the Khagan and Kurram Valleys but A. h. hodgsoni also breeds in this area, so that the records are difficult to disentangle. Eggs taken by these two gentlemen cannot be distinguished from those of the European bird. Average of twenty eggs 21.0 x 15.8 mm.: maxima 22.5 x 16.5 and 22.1 x 17.0 mm.; minima 19.6 x 15.1 and 19.8 x 14.9 mm. The breeding season seems to be in June and July, a few early birds laying in May.
Habits. Witherby's Pipit appears to be a local breeding form of the European Pipit and, like so many local geographical races, is more sedentary than the typical forms. It very seldom wanders into the lower hills of North-West India but there are a few skins in the British Museum which seem referable to this race. Except that it keeps to high mountainous tracts it does not differ in habits from its European cousin.