(1203) Anthus spinoletta japonicus.
The Japanese Water-Pipit.
Anthus pratensis japonicus Temm. & Scklegel, Faun. Jap., p. 59 (1847) (Japan).' Anthus japonicus. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 312.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. A. much darker bird at all seasons than any of the other races ; the upper parts have quite dark olive-brown edges to the feathers and below the warm vinous-buff breast and flanks are boldly spotted and streaked with blackish.
Colours of soft parts as in the other races.
Measurements. Wing 79 to 95 mm.
Young birds are much darker than those of the other races and much more profusely marked with blackish-brown below.
Distribution. Breeding in Kamschatka, Amur, E. Siberia and Kurile Is. They winter in South China, the Indo-Chinese countries, Burma and as a straggler only in Northern India.
Nidification. Nothing recorded. Oates identified two birds trapped on their nests on Mt. "Victoria, Chin Hills, 7,000 feet, as being of this race. The skins cannot be traced, so it is impossible to confirm their identification.
Habits. Those of the genus. It seems to be merely a casual Cold Weather visitor to India, single specimens having been obtained in Darjeeling, Nepal, Umbala, Multan and Karachi. In Burma it is less uncommon in Winter and Harington found it common in the Shan States and Bhamo District.