852. Anthus japonicus.
The Eastern Water-Pipit.
Anthus pratensis japonicus, Temm. & Schley. Faun. Japan., Aves, p. 59, pl. 24 (1850). Anthus blakistoni, Swinh., apud Butler, S. F. vii, p. 177. Anthus ludovicianus (Gmel.), apud Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 485; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 238. Anthus japonicus, Temm. Schley., Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 598.
Coloration. The adult of this species appears to be of a uniform unspotted vinous colour below, but I have been unable to examine any but young birds.
The young bird as usually found in India is ashy brown above, tinged with green, all the feathers except those of the rump and upper tail-coverts centred darker; the wings blackish margined with fulvous white ; the tail dark brown margined paler, the outermost feather with the terminal half obliquely white, the penultimate with the inner web broadly tipped white ; sides of the head brown and fulvous ; a supercilium and the whole lower plumage pale fulvous, every portion of the latter except the chin, throat, and middle of the abdomen streaked with very wide coarse black streaks, those on the breast being particularly large.
Legs and feet brown ; bill black ; iris blackish brown (Butler).
Length about 6.5; tail 2.6; wing 3.5; tarsus .85; bill from gape .65 ; hind claw .4.
Distribution. Undoubted specimens of this Pipit are in the British Museum from Karachi, Mooltan, and Darjiling, killed in the winter months; a specimen from Nepal and another from Umballa in indifferent order appear to be referable to this species. This Pipit winters in China and Japan, and apparently summers in Eastern Siberia and Kamtschatka.
Anthus pennsylvanicus, Lath., of North America is an allied species. It differs in having the lower plumage in all stages of the young very fulvous, and in having the streaks on the breast narrow, well-defined, and detached from one another.
Anthus gustavi, Swinhoe, from China, Northern Asia, and other parts, is very richly streaked with black above on a bright fulvous ground, and the breast and sides of the body are streaked with long well-defined black streaks.