324. Richard’s Pipit.
Anthus richardi, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xxvi. p. 491 (1818) ; Naum. xiii. p. 94, Taf. 371, figs. 3, 4 ; Hewitson, i. p. 175, pl. xliv. fig. 4 ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 35 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 8 ; Newton, i. p. 598 ; Dresser, iii. p. 325, pl. 138 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 564 ; Oates, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, ii. p. 307 ; Saunders, p. 139 ; Lilford, iii. p. 130, pl. 66.
Pipit-richard, French ; Churrica, Span. ; Calandro forestiero, Ital. ; Spornpieper, German ; Groote-pieper, Dutch.
Male ad. (Belgium). Upper parts blackish brown the feathers broadly margined with reddish brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts more uniform brown and duller ; wings and tail blackish brown, the quills margined with pale buff and rufous, the coverts tipped with white and rufous ; outer tail-feather nearly pure white, the next with the terminal part white, the middle feathers with rufous margins ; supercilium whitish ; under parts white, the throat, breast, and flanks washed with rufous buff, a line from the base of the bill and a band across the breast composed of blackish spots ; bill and iris dark brown ; legs light brown. Culmen 0.75. wing 3.7, tail 3.25, tarsus 1.2, hind toe with claw 1.25, hind claw 0.78 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird has the upper parts duller and paler, the under parts more profusely spotted, and all the wing-coverts and inner secondaries broadly margined with white.
Hab. Central, northern, and eastern Asia, occurring on pas¬sage in central, southern, and western Europe, rare in Scandinavia and Great Britain, wintering in India, Burma, China, and the Moluccas.
Frequents open bush-covered localities, both in the hills and on the plains, but is sometimes seen in the woods. It appears to prefer the vicinity of water, and occurs also in marshy places. It is generally seen on the ground, but also perches on bushes and plants. Its call-note is described as being a prolonged tsi, and its song, which is uttered whilst the bird is floating in the air like a Skylark, is feeble, short, and devoid of originality. It feeds on insects which it obtains on the ground. It breeds in Siberia from the Yenesei to Dauria and in central Asia, early in June, its nest being placed on the ground, like those of its congeners, and deposits 5 to 6 eggs yellowish white, pale yellowish olivaceous or rosy white, closely marked all over the surface of the egg with brown or brownish olivaceous, in size averaging about 0.89 by 0.65.
324. Anthus richardi
324. Richard’s Pipit.