323. TAWNY PIPIT.
Anthus campestris, (Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 288 (1766) ; Naum. iii. p. 745, Taf. 84, fig. 1. ; Gould, B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 9 ; Newton, i. p. 592 ; Dresser, iii. p. 317, pl. 137 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 569 ; Saunders, p. 137 ; Lilford, iii. p. 127, pl. 65.
Pipit roussoline, French ; Petinha, Portug. ; Calandrina, Span. ; Calandro, Ital. ; Brachpieper, German ; Duinpieper, Dutch ; Markpiber, Dan. ; Faltpiplarka, Swed. ; Kangas-kirvinen Finn.; Stepnaya-shevreska, Russ. ; Chillu, Hindu.
Male ad. (Portugal). Upper parts ochreous sandy brown tinged with grey, indistinctly striped with dark brown ; rump paler and less marked but the upper tail-coverts more distinctly striped ; wings and tail blackish brown the former margined with ochreous buff, middle tail-feathers margined with fawny ochre and the two outer ones yellowish white, on the inner web bordered with blackish brown ; supercilium and sides of face yellowish white the latter marked with dull brown ; lores dark brown, the throat, breast, and under parts rich isabelline, washed with rufous and indistinctly spotted with pale brown on the breast ; bill blackish brown above, dull yellowish at the base below ; legs yellowish brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.7, wing 3.75, tail 3.2, tarsus 1.0, hind toe with claw 0.7 inch. Sexes alike.
Hab. Europe, rare as far north as Great Britain and Scandi¬navia ; western Siberia, Afghanistan, and Turkestan, wintering in northern Africa, and the plains of north-west India.
Frequents sterile, sandy plains, and also to some extent, cultivated ground, and is restless and uneasy in its habits, and runs with ease like a Lark, moving its tail slightly when halting, somewhat after the manner of a Wagtail. Its call-note is monotonous, resembling the syllables zer-vee, and its song, which is weak and poor, is uttered whilst it is on the wing. Its food consists of insects of various kinds, very seldom of seeds. It breeds late in May, its nest being placed on the ground and constructed of dry grass-bents and rootlets, lined with fine roots or horsehair. The eggs, 5 to 6 in number, are blue grey, marked with umber-brown or brownish grey, closely and minutely spotted with reddish brown. In size they average about 0.82 by 0.62.
323. Anthus campestris
323. TAWNY PIPIT.