(1197) Anthus campestris campestris.
The Tawny Pipit.
Alauda campestris Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed. i, p. 166 (1758) (Sweden); Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 309 (part).
Vernacular names. Chillu (Hind.).
Description. Above brown, each feather margined with sandy-buff or ochraceous-buff, the rump and upper tail-coverts sandy- brown; tail blackish-brown, the central tail-feathers broadly-edged with pale ochraceous ; outermost pair white on the outer web and with an oblique white terminal half to the inner web, penultimate pair similar but with only a white tip to the inner web; wing-feathers dark brown, edged with sandy-buff; an indistinct supercilium sandy-buff ; lores dusky; ear-coverts pale sandy, tipped brown ; a line under the ear-coverts and another on either side of the throat dark brown ; lower plumage sandy-fulvous, darker on the breast and nearly always showing a few dark striae.
Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill dark horny-brown above, paler and yellowish below ; legs and feet yellowish-fleshy.
Measurements. "Wing 82 to 92 mm.; tail 65 to 72 mm.; tarsus 25 to 27 mm. ; culmen 14 to 16 mm.
Young birds are darker and have well-defined streaks on the breast and anterior flanks.
Distribution. Breeding in Europe from South of Sweden to the Mediterranean countries, North-West Africa, Asia Minor and West Siberia. In Winter South to the greater part of India.
Nidification. Breeds from May to early July, making a typical, but unusually bulky, Pipit's nest of grass lined with finer grass or hair. The eggs number four or five and are typical of the genus. The ground-colour is reddish, yellowish or greenish-white generally densely speckled and spotted all over with varying shades of reddish-brown with secondary marks of lavender and pale purple. Jourdain gives the measurements of 137 eggs, average 21.9 x 15.7 mm.: maxima 23.8 x 16.6 and 22.5 x 17.1 mm.; minima 19.0 x 15.0 and 20.0 x 14.6 mm.
The breeding-season is May and June, second clutches being sometimes laid in July.
Habits. Those of the genus. It is found more often in open rather barren country rather than well-cultivated, heavily-grassed tracts, though it does occur in these also and sometimes frequents and breeds in standing crops.