1197. Anthus campestris campestris

(1197) Anthus campestris campestris.

The Tawny Pipit.

Alauda campestris Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed. i, p. 166 (1758) (Sweden); Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 309 (part).

Vernacular names. Chillu (Hind.).

Description. Above brown, each feather margined with sandy-buff or ochraceous-buff, the rump and upper tail-coverts sandy- brown; tail blackish-brown, the central tail-feathers broadly-edged with pale ochraceous ; outermost pair white on the outer web and with an oblique white terminal half to the inner web, penultimate pair similar but with only a white tip to the inner web; wing-feathers dark brown, edged with sandy-buff; an indistinct supercilium sandy-buff ; lores dusky; ear-coverts pale sandy, tipped brown ; a line under the ear-coverts and another on either side of the throat dark brown ; lower plumage sandy-fulvous, darker on the breast and nearly always showing a few dark striae.

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill dark horny-brown above, paler and yellowish below ; legs and feet yellowish-fleshy.

Measurements. "Wing 82 to 92 mm.; tail 65 to 72 mm.; tarsus 25 to 27 mm. ; culmen 14 to 16 mm.

Young birds are darker and have well-defined streaks on the breast and anterior flanks.

Distribution. Breeding in Europe from South of Sweden to the Mediterranean countries, North-West Africa, Asia Minor and West Siberia. In Winter South to the greater part of India.

Nidification. Breeds from May to early July, making a typical, but unusually bulky, Pipit's nest of grass lined with finer grass or hair. The eggs number four or five and are typical of the genus. The ground-colour is reddish, yellowish or greenish-white generally densely speckled and spotted all over with varying shades of reddish-brown with secondary marks of lavender and pale purple. Jourdain gives the measurements of 137 eggs, average 21.9 x 15.7 mm.: maxima 23.8 x 16.6 and 22.5 x 17.1 mm.; minima 19.0 x 15.0 and 20.0 x 14.6 mm.

The breeding-season is May and June, second clutches being sometimes laid in July.

Habits. Those of the genus. It is found more often in open rather barren country rather than well-cultivated, heavily-grassed tracts, though it does occur in these also and sometimes frequents and breeds in standing crops.

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India, Including Ceylon And Burma-birds(second Edition)
Reference: 
Baker, EC S (1922–1930) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Second edition. vol.3 1926.
Title in Book: 
1197. Anthus campestris campestris
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
1197
Year: 
1926
Page No: 
292
Common name: 
Tawny Pipit
M_ID: 
30398
M_CN: 
Tawny Pipit
M_SN: 
Anthus campestris
Volume: 
Vol. 3
Term name: 
id: 
4054

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith