848. Anthus campestris.
The Tawny Pipit.
Alauda campestris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). Anthus campestris (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 136; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 669. Agrodroma campestris (Linn), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 234; Hume, S. F. i, p. 202 ; id. Cat. no. 602 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 245. The Stone-Pipit, Jerd.; Chillu, Hind.
Coloration. The fully adult bird is pale sandy brown above, with darker centres or streaks to all the feathers except those of the rump; wings dark brown, margined with bright sandy buff; tail black, the outermost feather with the terminal half obliquely white, the penultimate with an oblique patch of white about an inch in length ; lores and sides of the head mixed brown and fulvous; a broad supercilium and the whole lower plumage sandy buff or fulvous entirely unmarked.
The young bird has the upper plumage darker, a row of brown spots down each side of the throat and the whole breast streaked with rather well-defined brown marks and a few indistinct streaks on the sides of the body. At each spring moult the streaks become reduced in number and ultimately disappear.
Iris blackish brown; bill dark horny brown above, pale flesh below; legs and feet pale yellowish flesh (Butler).
Length about 7.5; tail 3; wing 3.5; tarsus 1; bill from gape .8 : hind claw .45, very slightly longer than hind toe.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the north-west portion of India, ranging to Ahmednagar on the south and to Manbhoom and Mughal Sarai on the east. At this season this species ranges westwards to Northern Africa. It summers in Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia.