Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 200 (1766) ; (Naum.), xi. p. 659. Taf. 302 ; figs. 1, 3 ; (Hewitson), ii. p. 402, pl. cxiii. fig. 1 ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pl. 366 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 19 ; Dresser, vi. p. 487, pl. 424 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 499 ; (Audubon), B. Am. vi. p. 254, pl. 388 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 221 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 1154 ; Blanf. E. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 440 ; (Seebohm), B. Jap. Emp. p. 242 ; Saunders, p. 425 ; (Lilford), vii. p. 87, pl. 34 ; (Ridgway), p. 95.
Chipeau bruyant, French ; Frisada, Portug. ; Trigali, Pato castellano, Span. ; Canapiglia. Ital. ; Schnatterente, German ; Kraakeend, Dutch ; Snadderand, Dan. ; Snatterand, Swed. ; Serucha, Russ. ; Samari, Arab. ; Mila, Bhuar, Hindu. ; Okayoshi, Jap.
Male ad. (Holland). Crown and nape dark reddish brown ; head and neck dull brownish white all narrowly barred ; back dark slaty with undulating white cross-bars ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black ; tail and quills ashy brown ; alar patch white ; larger wing-coverts black, median chestnut-red, the lesser grey marbled with sandy brown ; elongated inner secondaries and scapulars dull light brown ; breast and flanks blackish with transverse white lines ; under tail-coverts jet black ; bill blackish along the ridge of the upper mandible, otherwise dirty yellow ; legs dirty yellow, webs blackish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1.9, wing 10.4, tail 4.0, tarsus 1.55 inch. The female has the crown and nape blackish brown finely striated with pale rufous ; back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts blackish brown margined and marked with rufous ; wing- coverts grey tipped with dull white, the larger marked with rufous ; speculum white ; chin and upper throat white ; neck, breast, and flanks dark brown, the former margined with rufous, the last with rufous grey ; middle of abdomen dull white ; under tail-coverts whitish spotted with brown. In the summer the male assumes a dress much like that of the female, but the wings and tail are as above described.
Hab. Europe generally, north to Iceland and central Scandi¬navia ; comparatively rare in Great Britain ; northern Africa in winter and is said to have occurred as far south as the Orange River ; Asia north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, and south in winter to India and China ; North America, south to the West Indies and Mexico in winter.
In habits it resembles Anas boscas and is essentially a fresh¬water duck, feeding chiefly on vegetable matter, but it is also known to eat aquatic insects, small shell-fish, frogs, etc. It breeds in temperate latitudes making a nest like that of A. boscas, placed near the water and usually in May, deposits 8 to 13 eggs, pale creamy yellow in colour, and in size averaging about 2.10 by 1.50.
844. Chaulelasmus streperus