(379) Criniger tephrogenys tephrogenys.
THE MALAYAN WHITE-THROATED BULBUL.
Tricophorus tephrogenys Jard. & Selby, 111. Ind. Orn.,pl. xxvii (1833) (no locality) (Tenasserim). Criniger gutturalis. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 256.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Whole upper plumage olive-brown with an ochraceous tinge, rufescent on the head, crest and upper tail-coverts ; tail rufous-brown tipped paler ; wings brown, the outer webs of the feathers rufescent; lores and a ring round the eye greyish; ear-coverts brown with pale shafts ; chin and throat white; lower plumage fulvous-brown tinged with ochre and ochraceous yellow on the centre of the abdomen; under tail-coverts buff.
Colours of soft parts. Iris wood-brown; upper mandible dark horny-brown, lower mandible plumbeous; legs and feet pinkish brown (Hume & Davison).
Measurements. Length about 230 mm.; wing 96 to 102 mm.; tail about 100 mm.; tarsus 17.5 to 18.5 mm.; culmen about 38 mm.
Distribution. The extreme South of Tenasserim and S.W. Siam down the Malay Peninsula. The true gutturalis from Borneo is a darker, browner bird below.
Nidification. Nest and eggs sent me by Mr. W. A. T. Kellow> from near Taiping, Federated Malay States, were all found in March, April and May, some of these taken in the first month were already hard-set. The nests, which were taken in dense forest in amongst the heaviest undergrowth, were placed in low bushes on the banks of, or close to, forest streams. They were bulky cups of leaves, roots, twigs, moss etc with a thick lining of bamboos, inside which again there was a true lining of roots both fine and coarse. The eggs, two in number in each case except once when there were three, are very beautiful. The ground-colour varies from a pale wine-coloured pink to the deepest salmon and the whole surface is more or less covered with blotches, smudges and a few spots and scrawls of deep bright red. The surface is intensely glossy, the shell hard and fine and in shape they are rather long ovals, generally well pointed at the smaller end. Nine eggs average 25.2 x 18.5 mm.
Habits. Similar to those of the better-known C t. flaveolus from the Sub-Himalayas. They are birds of dense evergreen forests at low levels, go about in small flocks in the non-breeding season and are very noisy birds. They keep much to the lower trees and undergrowth.