Totanus hypoleucus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 250 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 7, Taf. 194 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 333, pl. xc. fig. 2 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 316 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 58 ; Dresser, viii. p. 127, pl. 563 ; (David and Oust.) Ois. Chine, p. 467 ; Seebohm. B. Jap, Emp. p. 326 ; (Sharps), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 456 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 882 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 260 ; (Ridgway), p. 170 ; Saunders, p. 605 ; Lilford, v. p. 103, pl. 45, Poynting, p. 193, pl. 41.
Chevalier guignette, French ; Macarico das rochas, Portug. ; Lavandera chica, Siseta, Span. ; Piro-piro-piccolo, Ital. ; Fluss Uferlaufefr, German ; Oeverlooper, Steenvink, Dutch ; Muddersneppe, Dan. ; Strandsnipe, Norweg. ; Drillsnappa, Swed. ; Libik, Lapp. ; Ranta-siippi, Koska-siippi, Finn. ; Beregovnik, Russ.
Male ad. (N. Russia). Upper parts bronzy olivaceous brown, the crown, hind neck, and back, wing-coverts, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts barred and narrowly striped with blackish ; primaries blackish, the secondaries with a broad basal band and tips white ; middle tail-feathers like the back, the rest white, barred with blackish ; chin and a streak over the eye white ; sides of neck and breast pale ashy grey, striped with blackish ; rest of under parts white ; base of bill dull fleshy, the rest dark brown ; legs grey, tinged with preen ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1.1, wing 4.5, tail 2.55, tarsus 1.0 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are more uniform and less marked with black ; the throat and breast greyer, and striped less distinctly. The young have the feathers on the upper parts tipped with brownish ochreous and narrowly barred with black.
Hab. The whole of Europe from the Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean, breeding almost everywhere ; Africa, in winter south to the Cape Colony ; Asia generally, north to Kamchatka ; Japan, Corea, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Burma, India ; in winter migrating south to Australia.
Frequents inland streams, ponds, and lakes, and is not often seen on the sea coast, nor does it collect in flocks, but is seen singly or in pairs, and affects places where the shores of the lakes or banks are wooded or covered more or less with bushes, and is as a rule shy and wary. Its note is a shrill di, di, di, its flight is rapid but wavering, and it frequently nods its head, and jerks its tail when tripping along. It breeds in un¬frequented places near water, often on a river bank or some¬times in willow thickets, its nest being a mere depression scantily lined with a few grass blades, and its 4 eggs, which are usually deposited in May, vary from creamy white to warm stone-buff in ground-colour, the surface markings from dull red to brownish red, and the shell spots are purplish grey. In size they measure about 1.42 by 1.04.
1092. Totanus hypoleucus