1460. Totanus hypoleucus.
The Common Sandpiper.
Tringa hypoleucos, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 250 (1766). Actitis hypoleucus, Illiger, Prod. p. 262; Blyth, Cat. p. 267 ; Jerdon, B. J. iii, p. 699 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 169; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 253; Hume & Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 289; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18, v, p. 233 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 228. Totanus hypoleucus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 424; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 86; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 197 : Seebohm, Charadr. p. 371. Tringoides hypoleucus, Bonap. Saggio Bistr. Meth. p. 58; Hume, N. & E. p.588; id. S. F. i, p. 247; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 299 ; Armstrong, S. P. iv, p. 344; Hume, ibid. p. 465 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 463, 521; Hume, Cat. no. 893 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 358; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 867 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 80 ; Doig, ibid. p. 282; Butler, ibid. p. 430; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97, 1882, p. 289; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589; Reid, S. F. x, p. 71; Davison, ibid. p. 414 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 399 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 359; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 324; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 352 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 141 ; id. Cat, B. M. xxiv, p. 456.
Potti ulanka, Tel.; Kotan, Tarn. (Ceylon).
Coloration in winter. Whole upper parts, including rump, upper tail-coverts and tail brown with a distinct olive tinge, slightly glossy, the feathers dark-shafted, and those of the lower back and rump, the scapulars, tertiaries, wing-coverts, and middle tail-feathers with a subterminal dark bar and pale or whitish tip; edges of tertiaries and middle rectrices in fresh plumage spotted with black and buff alternately towards the end; bastard wing, primary-coverts, and primaries dark brown, the two former and all greater coverts tipped white ; part of inner webs of all primaries except the first white; secondaries white, with a broad subterminal brown band, disappearing partly or wholly on some of the inner quills; outer tail-feathers banded dark brown and white; a broad but indistinct pale supercilium ; sides of head, of neck, and of breast ashy brown, streaked darker; lower parts including axillaries white; some narrow dark shaft-stripes on fore neck.
In summer the upper parts are darker and less olive, with broader dark shaft-stripes and cross-bars, and the fore neck and breast are strongly striated with brown.
Bill greyish brown, darker at tip and with a greenish tinge at base ; irides brown ; legs pale green (Oates).
Length 8 ; tail 2.2; wing 4.25 ; tarsus .95 ; bill from gape 1.1.
Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Eastern Hemisphere, breeding in temperate regions and migrating in winter to S. Africa, S. Asia, and Australia. This Sandpiper is common throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in the cold season, less abundant in North India than T. ochropus, but much more so in Southern India, Ceylon, and Burma. It is very common around the Andaman Islands on the sea-shore.
Habits, &c. Usually a solitary bird, found chiefly on the banks of rivers and small streams, or of open ponds, or on the sea-shore, not generally in marshes. It breeds in Kashmir, and is said to have been found breeding on the Eastern Kara in Sind, but this requires confirmation. The eggs, four in number, are buff with blackish specks and spots ; they measure about 1.41 by 1.06, and have been taken in Kashmir in May and June.