The genus Ixops is very close to Actinodura, differing only in having a comparatively shorter tail and the tail-feathers less graduated. Species of this genus extend from Nepd eastwards to Formosa. In the case of this genus it is not easy to decide whether the different forms should be treated as species or sub¬species. There are four quite distinct birds in which the material at present available shows no intergrading. These are two rufous-breasted birds, one striped and one unstriped, a third striped grev bird and a fourth with a grey breast with brown centres. There seems, however, to be no intervening area in which a half-way form occurs. At the same time no two of these forms are found breeding in the same area and, therefore, for the present, I keep them as geographical races, or subspecies, only.
Key to Subspecies.
A. Chin, throat and breast not striped; [p. 307.
head with pale streaks Ixops nipalensis nipalensis^
B. Chin, throat and breast streaked; feathers of head with pale edges.
a. Chin, throat and breast rufous with darker centres.
a1. Upper parts rufous; ear-coverts silvery-grey Ixops n. waldeni, p. 308.
b1. Upper parts deep rufous cr maroon-brown ; ear-coverts dark grey .... Ixops n. poliotis, p. 309.
b. Chin, throat and breast grey with brown centres Ixops n. daflaensis, p. 309.