(326) Ixops nipalensis nipalensis.
THE HOARY BAR-WING.
Cinclosoma nipalensis Hodgs., As. Res., xix, p. 145 (1S36) (Nepal). Ixops nepalensis. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 203.
Vernacular names. Bamnio-pho (Lepcha).
Description. Forehead and crest coffee-brown, with long pale rufous shaft-streaks ; sides of neck, mantle, back and lesser wing-coverts rufescent brown, witb indistinct pale shaft-lines; rump and upper tail-coverts more rufous and unstreaked; primary-coverts black; greater coverts rufous tipped with hoary; quills chestnut, barred with black on the outer webs; innermost rufescent and barred on both webs; the outer webs of the first few primaries more or less ashy ; basal portion of tail castaneous, barred with black, the chestnut decreasing in extent on the outer feathers, the other portions black, tipped with white; ear-coverts and lores pale grey; cheeks black, the black continuing back below the ear-coverts ; chin, throat and breast fulvous-ashy, turning to ferruginous on the flanks, lower abdomen and under tail-coverts.
Colours of soft parts. Iris brown, eyelid bluish grey; bill brownish black; feet brownish-fleshy, claws livid (Scully).
Measurements. Length about 200 mm.; wing 84 to 91 mm.; tail about 80 to 85 mm.; tarsus about 30 mm.; culmen 17 to 18mm. As usual with the Timaliidae, the female is decidedly smaller than the male.
Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan.
Nidification. Hodgson notes that this Bar-wing breeds between 4,000 and 6.000 feet in Sikkim and Nepal but the nest and eggs he describes in no way resemble any other birds of this group, and judging from the very close connection of this genus with the genus Actinodura there is possibly some mistake. Other observers say that in the breeding season they haunt mountains nearer the 8,000-foot levels.
Habits. Jerdon says that it is more arboreal than birds of the last genus and that it feeds chiefly on insects which it obtains from the higher parts of moderate-sized trees, especially those with insect-infested flowers such as rhododendrons. He gives its habitat as from about 7,000 to 10,000 feet upwards.