1057. Aceros nepalensis.
The Rufous-necked Hornbill.
Buceros nepalensis, Hodgs. As. Res. xviii, pt. 1, p. 178, 2 pls. (1829); id. Gl. Sci. i, p. 249 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi,_p. 970; xii, p. 989; xvi, p. 997, pl. xliv, tig. 1 ; id. Cat. p. 45 ; Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 182. Aceros nipalensis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844); Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 601; Jerdon, B. I. i. p. 250; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 95 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 69; Gammie, S. F. iii, p. 209; Elliot, Mon. Buc. pl. 45; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 110; Hume, Cat. no. 146; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 98; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 77 ; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 588; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 572; vii, p. 382; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 380. Aceros leucostigma, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, pp. 516, 573 (1887).
Coloration. Male. Head, neck, and lower parts rufous, darkest on the abdomen and flanks ; end of middle primaries and terminal half of tail white; remainder of plumage black, glossed with dark green; in the lower tail-coverts some chestnut is often mixed with the black.
Female. Black, except the ends of the middle primaries and the terminal third of the tail, which are white. The young resemble adults of the same sex, except in wanting the ridges at the base of the upper mandible, these increase in number with age up to about seven.
Bill yellow, the grooves chestnut; iris red; naked skin round eyes and at base of bill velvety light blue; naked skin of throat bright scarlet (Jerdon): feet dark brown (Hodgson).
Length 4 feet; tail 18 inches ; wing 18.5 ; tarsus 2.5; bill from gape 8.5. Females are less : length 42 inches; tail 16 ; wing 17.5.
Distribution. The Himalayas of Nepal, Sikhim, and farther east, from 2000 to about 6000 feet; the hills south of Assam, Karennee, and the Muleyit range in Tenasserim.
Habits, &c. Food, mode of flight, and nidification similar to those of other large Hornbills. This bird has a monosyllabic croak. A full account of the nidification has been given by Mr. Gammie, who twice, both in April and in May, took a single egg from the hollow in a tree in which the female was enclosed in the usual manner. The number of eggs is said to be generally two. One egg measures 2.25 by 1.75, the other 2.12 by 1.57.