1246. Lophospizias trivirgatus.
The Crested Goshawk.
Falco trivirgatus, Temm. Pl. Col. pl. 303 (1824). Spizaetus rufitinctus, McClelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 153. Astur indicus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844), descr. nulla. Lophospiza trivirgatus, Kaup, Class. Saugth. Vog. p. 118; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 116 ; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 355; ix, p. 299. Astur trivirgatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 23; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 42; Beavan, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 394 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 105 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 439; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 197; Hume, Cat. no. 22; Legge, Birds- Ceyl. p. 20; Davison, S. F. x, p. 334 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 177 ; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 119 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 22. Astur (Lophospiza) trivirgatus, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 47 ; Godw.-Aust,. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 92; Hartert, J. f. O. 1889, p. 375. Lophospizias trivirgatus, Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 355; id. S. F. v, p. 502: Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 62: Salvadori, Ann. Mus Civ. Gen. (2) vii. p. 374. Lophospiza indica, Hume & Oates, S. F. iii, p. 24; Hume & Inglis, S. F. v, p. 8. Lophospiza rufitinctus, Hume, S. F. v, p. 124 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 7. Astur rufitinctus, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 197 ; xi, p. 7 ; id. Cat. no. 22 bis.
Gor Besra, Manik Besra, Koteswar, H.; Churiari, Jamal Kathi, Jurye, Nepal; Kokila dega, Tel.
Coloration. Adult. Forehead, crown, and small nuchal crest blackish, passing into ashy on the sides of the head and neck, the feathers dark-shafted; cheeks and ear-coverts ashy; upper parts from the nape dark brown with more or less gloss; upper tail-coverts tipped white; quills with blackish bars, ill-marked above, distinct below; tail-feathers with 4 broad blackish bands; chin and throat white with 3 blackish stripes, one median and one on each side bordering the grey cheeks; breast-feathers rufous-brown, paler or darker, with white edges, the amount of brown apparently increasing with age; abdomen and thigh-coverts transversely barred white and brown, the bars broader on the abdomen than on the thighs; under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts buffy white with brown spots.
Young birds are brown above, the feathers with pale edges and the buff basal portions showing on the head and neck; lower surfaces buff, with indications of the three gular stripes, and with some brown spots on the breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, and a few dark bars on the thigh-coverts.
Bill dark bluish brown, blackish at the tip; cere, gape, and eyelids greenish yellow ; irides golden yellow ; legs and feet dull or pale yellow.
Himalayan females measure : length about 18 inches; tail 8.5; wing 10.5 ; tarsus 2.75; bill from gape 1.2 : males rather less, wing 9-3. Birds from Southern India and Ceylon are much smaller—length of females about 16 ; tail 7 ; wing 8.5 ; tarsus 2.3 -bill from gape 1.1 : of males, length 14.5, wing 8. The large race is L. rufitinctus of McClelland and L. indicus of Hodgson; the smaller agrees with typical L. trivirgatus, originally described from Sumatra. As there is no distinction except size, this is clearly one of the numerous instances in which Northern Indian birds are much larger than their South Indian, Ceylonese, and Malay representatives; and, as Mr. Gurney has shown, both forms vary in size and pass into each other.
Distribution. The great forests and hilly tracts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Formosa, and probably Southern China and Siam. In India generally this is a rare bird. It has been recorded from the Himalayas as far west as Kumaun, and Butler believed he saw an individual at Mount Abu.
Habits, &c. A forest bird, living chiefly in high trees, and feeding on small birds and lizards. It has a shrill whistling call. The nest has been found on a high tree in Sikhim on May 2nd and in Travancore in April, and contained in one case two eggs, in the other two young birds. The eggs were pale greenish white and measured 2 by 1.4 inches.