Subfamily FRATERCULINAE

Subfamily FRATERCULINAE.

PUFFINS.

Feathers on lores not extending to posterior border of nasal opening. Nostril overhung by a horny scale. Puffins are distinguished from the rest of the Auks by their peculiar bill, deeply grooved, while in summer there are some wattles on the face. They have ornamental plumage in the shape of brightly coloured crests and tufts of feathers on the sides of the head, as well as an ornamental colour on the bills, which is shed after the breeding season, just as other bird9 moult their feathers. Six genera.

Inner claw like the others. Terminal portion of upper mandible not transversely grooved.

Tail of fourteen feathers.

One genus, Ptychorhampus. With breadth of upper mandible at base greater than the depth. Head and neck devoid of ornamental plumes. One species, viz.—

P. aleuticus. 9". Above smoky black. Breast and below white. Small patch of white feathers above eye. Pacific coasts of N. America.

One genus, Simorhynchus. With breadth of upper mandible about equal to depth. Head and neck with ornamental plumes. Three species, viz.—

S. cristatellus. 10 1/2". The Crested Auk. With long frontal crest, dark brown, curving forwards. Lores uniform brown. Belly grey. Coasts of N. Pacific and Behring Sea, from Japan to Alaska.

S. pygmaeus. 7 1/2". The Pigmy Auk. With long frontal crest. White patch on lores. Belly white. From N. Japan.

S. pusillus. 6 1/2". The Minute Auk. No crest. Forehead and lores with short, narrow, white plumes behind the eye. From Japan and Alaska.

One genus, Phaleris. With breadth of upper mandible at base less than the depth. Culmen forming a blunt razor edge. Sides of head with ornamental plumes. One species, viz.—

P. psittaculus. 10 1/2". The Parroquet Auk. Bill salmon-red. Coasts of N. Pacific from Kurile Islands to Alaska.

One genus, Cerorhyncha. With rather long bill. Head and neck plumes, and in breeding season an elevated horn at base of culmen. . Tail of sixteen or eighteen feathers. One species, viz.—

C. monocerata. 14". Bill orange. Coast and islands of N. Pacific from Japan to Alaska and California.

Inner claw much more strongly curved than others. Terminal part of upper mandible transversely grooved. Tail of sixteen feathers. One genus, Lunda. Lower mandible without grooves. Lengthened crest of silky feathers. One species, viz.—

L. cirrhata. 16". The Tufted Auk. Bill vermilion. Tuft of yellow hairy feathers from behind eye. Coasts and islands of N. Pacific, from N. Japan to California. Also off Greenland.

One genus, Fratercula. Lower mandible grooved. In summer a deciduous nasal shield, and eyelids with deciduous horny appendages. No ornamental nuptial crests. Two species, viz. —

F. arctica. 13". The Puffin or Sea-Parrot. Sides of head and chin grey. Collar black, and not extending beyond throat. Basal half of mandibles slate, terminal half carmine, with an intermediate band of pale yellow. Legs orange. Coasts and islands of N. Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, from north of N. America to Nova Zembla, and south to Great Britain, France, Portugal, and Canary Islands.

F. corniculata. 16". Sides of head white. Collar black, extending to chin. Basal half of mandibles yellow. Coasts and islands of N. Pacific from Sea of Ochotsk to British Columbia.

BookTitle: 
Game, Shore And Water Birds Of India
Reference: 
Le Messurier, Augustus. Game, Shore, and Water Birds of India Fourth Edition, 1904.
Title in Book: 
Subfamily FRATERCULINAE
Book Author: 
A Le Messurier
Year: 
1904
Page No: 
292
Volume: 
4th ed.
id: 
13219

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