PLOVERS and LAPWINGS.
Bill short, slightly enlarged on top at tip, resembling that of a Pigeon (Strepsilas excepted). Nasal groove not extending beyond half the length of upper mandible. Toes scarcely webbed or connected. Tarsus always reticulated behind, but, in front, sometimes reticulated and sometimes scutellated. First quill usually longest. The difficulties in recognition may be partially overcome if the species are examined in the following groups, viz.—
With neither wing-spur nor facial wattle (133-148).
Without wing-spur, and with a facial wattle (149-152).
With wing-spur, and without a facial wattle (153).
With both wing-spur and a facial wattle (not represented in India).
(i.) With no wing-spur, and no facial wattle.