Subfamily FALCONINAE

Subfamily FALCONINAE.

This Subfamily differs principally from the Gypaetinae in its shorter, comparatively deeper bill and in the sharp claws. There is no tuft of bristles on the chin. The arrangement adopted is that of Blanford except that the third of his groups, that which contains the type genus Falco with one tooth on each side of the bill, is given priority of place. The key given below applies, in some cases, to Indian species only.

Key to Genera.

A.Bill with one tooth on each side of the upper mandible, opposite the tip of the lower mandible.
a. Tail never more than two-thirds length of wing.
a1. Size moderate, wing never under 180 mm.
a2. Tail rounded,never graduated. a3. Sexes alike; foot long, mid-toe over 30 mm............... FALCO, p. 31.
b3. Sexes not alike; foot small, mid-toe about 25.5 mm............... ERYTHROPUS, p. 58.
b2. Tail graduated............... CERCHNEIS, p. 60.
b1. Size very small, wing under 170 mm. MICROHIERAX, p. 51.
B.Tail nearly as long as wing............... NEOHIERAX, p. 55.
B. Bill without any tooth on upper mandible; a festoon commonly present further back.
c.Lores with bristles or with feathers ending in bristles.
c1 Tarsus feathered throughout,
c2. Claws much curved; hind claw longer than inner.
c3. Primaries exceeding secondaries by more than length of tarsus.
c4. No crest,
a3. Nostrils round ; bill longer……………..AQUILA, p. 67.
b3. Nostrils oval ; bill shorter………….HIERAETUS, p. 77.
d4. A long occipital crest............... LOPHOTRIORCHIS. p. 80.
d3. Primaries exceeding secondaries by less than length of tarsus……….SPIZAETUS, p. 84. d2. Claws but little curved, inner longer than hind claw ............... ICTINAETUS, p. 82.
d1. Tarsus not feathered throughout.
e2. Tarsus reticulated throughout, no scutellae broader than high.
e3. Tarsus long; more than 1 1/2 times length of bill from point to gape.
e4. Scales on tarsus subequal throughout.
c3. Head not crested............... CIRCAETUS, p. 93.
d3. Feathers of head and nape forming a crest ................ SPILORNIS, p. 95.
f4. Scales in front of tarsus larger than those behind ............... BUTASTUR, p. 103.
f3. Tarsus short, less than 1 1/2 times length of bill ............... ELANUS, p. 125.
g4. Size large; tarsi scutellated in front and reticulated or irregularly scutellated behind.
e5. Claws grooved beneath………….HALIAETUS, p. 108.
f5. Claws rounded beneath .. ICHTHYOPHAGA, p. 114.
h4. Size moderate; tarsus scutellated in front but not behind.
g5. Tarsus shoreless than twice length of bill from gape.
a6. Tail slightly rounded ., HALIASTUR, p. 118.
b6. Tail forked............... MILVUS. p. 120.
h5. Tarsus long, more than twice length of bill…………..CIRCUS, p. 127.
i4. Size moderate, tarsus scutellated behind.
i5. Bill from gape not more than half tarsus.
c6. Bill from gape between half and three-quarters length of hind toe with-
out claw............... ASTUR, p. 144.
d6. Bill from gape about half mid-toe............... ACCIPITER, p. 156.
k5. Bill from gape more than half tarsus ............... BUTEO, p. 136.
b. Lores densely feathered, without bristles.
d1. Loral feathers scale-like; bill not much compressed ............... PERNIS, p. 164.
e1. Loral feathers not scale-like; bill much compressed ...............MACHAERAMPHUS, p. 169.
C. Bill with two teeth on either side of the upper mandible, opposite tip of lower bill ...............BAZA, p. 170.

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India, Including Ceylon And Burma-birds(second Edition)
Reference: 
Baker, EC S (1922–1930) The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Second edition. vol.5 1928.
Title in Book: 
Subfamily FALCONINAE
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
Year: 
1928
Page No: 
25
Volume: 
Vol. 5
id: 
4305

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